Volume 535 Issue 7612, 21 July 2016

Editorial

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    Turkey purges all university deans after failed coup; engineered mosquitos show apparent success against dengue; and Romania joins CERN.

News

Correction

News Feature

  • News Feature |

    The soaring popularity of gene editing has made celebrities of the principal investigators who pioneered the field — but their graduate students and postdocs are often overlooked.

    • Heidi Ledford

    Special:

Comment

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.

    • Barbara Kiser

Correspondence

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The Antarctic Peninsula has been warming for many decades, but an analysis now reveals that it has cooled since the late 1990s. Inspection of the factors involved suggests that this is consistent with natural variability. See Letter p.411

    • Eric J. Steig
  • News & Views |

    A global study has identified coral reefs with greater fish biomass than would be predicted given human and environmental pressures. These outliers might teach us something about sustainable coral-reef management. See Letter p.416

    • Kristy J. Kroeker
  • News & Views |

    Electrons repel each other because they are negatively charged. An experiment now confirms a fifty-year-old theory that electrons can also attract one another as a result of repulsion from other electrons. See Letter p.395

    • Takis Kontos
  • News & Views |

    A field study of methane emissions from wetlands reveals that more of the gas escapes through diffusive processes than was thought, mostly at night. Because methane is a greenhouse gas, the findings have implications for global warming.

    • Katey Walter Anthony
    •  & Sally MacIntyre
  • News & Views |

    Two analyses of insulin-producing β-cells reveal differences in what has long been considered a homogeneous population. These differences might reflect changes during maturation or ageing, or distinct cell lineages. See Letter p.430

    • Susan Bonner-Weir
    •  & Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato
  • News & Views |

    Organic molecules called coenzymes are central to metabolism, but have also been found to act as components of RNA in bacteria. A study reveals how coenzymes are incorporated into RNA. See Letter p.444

    • Katharina Höfer
    •  & Andres Jäschke

Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    Research into ageing requires patience, but a small cadre of scientists is angling to speed up answers by developing the flamboyant, short-lived turquoise killifish as a new model.

    • Amber Dance

    Collection:

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    Observations of reverberation arising from gravitationally redshifted iron Kα photons reflected off the inner accretion flow in a tidal disruption event demonstrate that X-rays originate from a region very close to the central black hole and not from a relativistic jet, as previously thought.

    • Erin Kara
    • , Jon M. Miller
    • , Chris Reynolds
    •  & Lixin Dai
  • Letter |

    The widespread rimmed grooves, lineations and elongate craters extending from the Imbrium impact basin on the Moon, termed the Imbrium Sculpture, includes a non-radial component that is used to infer that the Imbrium impactor was the size of a proto-planet—about half the diameter of Vesta.

    • Peter H. Schultz
    •  & David A. Crawford
  • Letter |

    The incorporation of large numbers of chemically diverse functional components into microfabricated structures at precise locations is challenging; now the precision placement of DNA origami by directed self-assembly is shown to overcome this problem for the purpose of reliably and controllably coupling molecular emitters to photonic crystal cavities.

    • Ashwin Gopinath
    • , Evan Miyazono
    • , Andrei Faraon
    •  & Paul W. K. Rothemund
  • Letter |

    Data from over 2,500 reefs worldwide is used to identify 15 bright spots—sites where reef biomass is significantly higher than expected—and surveys of local experts in these areas suggest that strong sociocultural institutions and high levels of local engagement are among the factors supporting higher fish biomass.

    • Joshua E. Cinner
    • , Cindy Huchery
    • , M. Aaron MacNeil
    • , Nicholas A.J. Graham
    • , Tim R. McClanahan
    • , Joseph Maina
    • , Eva Maire
    • , John N. Kittinger
    • , Christina C. Hicks
    • , Camilo Mora
    • , Edward H. Allison
    • , Stephanie D’Agata
    • , Andrew Hoey
    • , David A. Feary
    • , Larry Crowder
    • , Ivor D. Williams
    • , Michel Kulbicki
    • , Laurent Vigliola
    • , Laurent Wantiez
    • , Graham Edgar
    • , Rick D. Stuart-Smith
    • , Stuart A. Sandin
    • , Alison L. Green
    • , Marah J. Hardt
    • , Maria Beger
    • , Alan Friedlander
    • , Stuart J. Campbell
    • , Katherine E. Holmes
    • , Shaun K. Wilson
    • , Eran Brokovich
    • , Andrew J. Brooks
    • , Juan J. Cruz-Motta
    • , David J. Booth
    • , Pascale Chabanet
    • , Charlie Gough
    • , Mark Tupper
    • , Sebastian C. A. Ferse
    • , U. Rashid Sumaila
    •  & David Mouillot
  • Letter |

    RNA caps other than the 7-methylguanylate modification are generated by a distinct mechanism in which caps are added during, not after, transcription initiation through the use of non-canonical initiating nucleotides by RNA polymerases, a finding which has functional consequences.

    • Jeremy G. Bird
    • , Yu Zhang
    • , Yuan Tian
    • , Natalya Panova
    • , Ivan Barvík
    • , Landon Greene
    • , Min Liu
    • , Brian Buckley
    • , Libor Krásný
    • , Jeehiun K. Lee
    • , Craig D. Kaplan
    • , Richard H. Ebright
    •  & Bryce E. Nickels
  • Letter |

    Mature pancreatic β-cells can be distinguished from proliferating ones by expression of the Fltp reporter gene, which is triggered by Wnt signalling and β-cell polarization and islet compaction.

    • Erik Bader
    • , Adriana Migliorini
    • , Moritz Gegg
    • , Noah Moruzzi
    • , Jantje Gerdes
    • , Sara S. Roscioni
    • , Mostafa Bakhti
    • , Elisabeth Brandl
    • , Martin Irmler
    • , Johannes Beckers
    • , Michaela Aichler
    • , Annette Feuchtinger
    • , Christin Leitzinger
    • , Hans Zischka
    • , Rui Wang-Sattler
    • , Martin Jastroch
    • , Matthias Tschöp
    • , Fausto Machicao
    • , Harald Staiger
    • , Hans-Ulrich Häring
    • , Helena Chmelova
    • , Julie A. Chouinard
    • , Nikolay Oskolkov
    • , Olle Korsgren
    • , Stephan Speier
    •  & Heiko Lickert
  • Letter |

    Adaptive immune dysfunction, in particular interferon-γ, is implicated in disorders characterized by social dysfunction and suggests interferon-γ signalling may provide a co-evolutionary link between social behaviour and an anti-pathogen immune response.

    • Anthony J. Filiano
    • , Yang Xu
    • , Nicholas J. Tustison
    • , Rachel L. Marsh
    • , Wendy Baker
    • , Igor Smirnov
    • , Christopher C. Overall
    • , Sachin P. Gadani
    • , Stephen D. Turner
    • , Zhiping Weng
    • , Sayeda Najamussahar Peerzade
    • , Hao Chen
    • , Kevin S. Lee
    • , Michael M. Scott
    • , Mark P. Beenhakker
    • , Vladimir Litvak
    •  & Jonathan Kipnis
  • Letter |

    In the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, expression of conditioned fear is causally related to the organization of neurons into functional assemblies, defining tight temporal control of this behaviour.

    • Cyril Dejean
    • , Julien Courtin
    • , Nikolaos Karalis
    • , Fabrice Chaudun
    • , Hélène Wurtz
    • , Thomas C. M. Bienvenu
    •  & Cyril Herry
  • Letter |

    Stabilization of an active and inactive conformation of the β2-adrenergic receptor by allosteric nanobodies reveals differential ligand-dependent regulation of receptor states to control G-protein-coupled receptor activation.

    • Dean P. Staus
    • , Ryan T. Strachan
    • , Aashish Manglik
    • , Biswaranjan Pani
    • , Alem W. Kahsai
    • , Tae Hun Kim
    • , Laura M. Wingler
    • , Seungkirl Ahn
    • , Arnab Chatterjee
    • , Ali Masoudi
    • , Andrew C. Kruse
    • , Els Pardon
    • , Jan Steyaert
    • , William I. Weis
    • , R. Scott Prosser
    • , Brian K. Kobilka
    • , Tommaso Costa
    •  & Robert J. Lefkowitz
  • Letter |

    Experimental demonstration of excitonic attraction between two electrons is achieved in quantum devices made from carbon nanotubes, where the interaction between two electrons is reversed from repulsive to attractive owing to their strong Coulomb interaction with another electronic system.

    • A. Hamo
    • , A. Benyamini
    • , I. Shapir
    • , I. Khivrich
    • , J. Waissman
    • , K. Kaasbjerg
    • , Y. Oreg
    • , F. von Oppen
    •  & S. Ilani
  • Letter |

    Neurotrophic factors produced by enteric glia in response to microbiota and alarmin cues regulate IL-22 production by group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the gut; disruption of this pathway leads to impaired clearance of Citrobacter rodentium and defects in epithelial integrity in a model of intestinal inflammation.

    • Sales Ibiza
    • , Bethania García-Cassani
    • , Hélder Ribeiro
    • , Tânia Carvalho
    • , Luís Almeida
    • , Rute Marques
    • , Ana M. Misic
    • , Casey Bartow-McKenney
    • , Denise M. Larson
    • , William J. Pavan
    • , Gérard Eberl
    • , Elizabeth A. Grice
    •  & Henrique Veiga-Fernandes
  • Letter |

    Here it is shown that the late twentieth century warming trends in the Antarctic Peninsula have ceased, with the Peninsula having instead been cooling for most of the twenty-first century, underscoring the considerable internal variability within the Antarctic climate system.

    • John Turner
    • , Hua Lu
    • , Ian White
    • , John C. King
    • , Tony Phillips
    • , J. Scott Hosking
    • , Thomas J. Bracegirdle
    • , Gareth J. Marshall
    • , Robert Mulvaney
    •  & Pranab Deb
  • Letter |

    Mobile genes, which can be transferred between bacterial species in the microbiome to impart properties such as antibiotic resistance, are reflective of human activity and local diets.

    • I. L. Brito
    • , S. Yilmaz
    • , K. Huang
    • , L. Xu
    • , S. D. Jupiter
    • , A. P. Jenkins
    • , W. Naisilisili
    • , M. Tamminen
    • , C. S. Smillie
    • , J. R. Wortman
    • , B. W. Birren
    • , R. J. Xavier
    • , P. C. Blainey
    • , A. K. Singh
    • , D. Gevers
    •  & E. J. Alm

Article

  • Article |

    Protection of nascent DNA from degradation provides a mechanism that can promote synthetic viability and drug resistance in Brca-deficient cells without restoring homologous recombination at double-strand breaks.

    • Arnab Ray Chaudhuri
    • , Elsa Callen
    • , Xia Ding
    • , Ewa Gogola
    • , Alexandra A. Duarte
    • , Ji-Eun Lee
    • , Nancy Wong
    • , Vanessa Lafarga
    • , Jennifer A. Calvo
    • , Nicholas J. Panzarino
    • , Sam John
    • , Amanda Day
    • , Anna Vidal Crespo
    • , Binghui Shen
    • , Linda M. Starnes
    • , Julian R. de Ruiter
    • , Jeremy A. Daniel
    • , Panagiotis A. Konstantinopoulos
    • , David Cortez
    • , Sharon B. Cantor
    • , Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
    • , Kai Ge
    • , Jos Jonkers
    • , Sven Rottenberg
    • , Shyam K. Sharan
    •  & André Nussenzweig
  • Article |

    A high-resolution gene expression atlas of prenatal and postnatal brain development of rhesus monkey charts global transcriptional dynamics in relation to brain maturation, while comparative analysis reveals human-specific gene trajectories; candidate risk genes associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders tend to be co-expressed in disease-specific patterns in the developing monkey neocortex.

    • Trygve E. Bakken
    • , Jeremy A. Miller
    • , Song-Lin Ding
    • , Susan M. Sunkin
    • , Kimberly A. Smith
    • , Lydia Ng
    • , Aaron Szafer
    • , Rachel A. Dalley
    • , Joshua J. Royall
    • , Tracy Lemon
    • , Sheila Shapouri
    • , Kaylynn Aiona
    • , James Arnold
    • , Jeffrey L. Bennett
    • , Darren Bertagnolli
    • , Kristopher Bickley
    • , Andrew Boe
    • , Krissy Brouner
    • , Stephanie Butler
    • , Emi Byrnes
    • , Shiella Caldejon
    • , Anita Carey
    • , Shelby Cate
    • , Mike Chapin
    • , Jefferey Chen
    • , Nick Dee
    • , Tsega Desta
    • , Tim A. Dolbeare
    • , Nadia Dotson
    • , Amanda Ebbert
    • , Erich Fulfs
    • , Garrett Gee
    • , Terri L. Gilbert
    • , Jeff Goldy
    • , Lindsey Gourley
    • , Ben Gregor
    • , Guangyu Gu
    • , Jon Hall
    • , Zeb Haradon
    • , David R. Haynor
    • , Nika Hejazinia
    • , Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen
    • , Robert Howard
    • , Jay Jochim
    • , Marty Kinnunen
    • , Ali Kriedberg
    • , Chihchau L. Kuan
    • , Christopher Lau
    • , Chang-Kyu Lee
    • , Felix Lee
    • , Lon Luong
    • , Naveed Mastan
    • , Ryan May
    • , Jose Melchor
    • , Nerick Mosqueda
    • , Erika Mott
    • , Kiet Ngo
    • , Julie Nyhus
    • , Aaron Oldre
    • , Eric Olson
    • , Jody Parente
    • , Patrick D. Parker
    • , Sheana Parry
    • , Julie Pendergraft
    • , Lydia Potekhina
    • , Melissa Reding
    • , Zackery L. Riley
    • , Tyson Roberts
    • , Brandon Rogers
    • , Kate Roll
    • , David Rosen
    • , David Sandman
    • , Melaine Sarreal
    • , Nadiya Shapovalova
    • , Shu Shi
    • , Nathan Sjoquist
    • , Andy J. Sodt
    • , Robbie Townsend
    • , Lissette Velasquez
    • , Udi Wagley
    • , Wayne B. Wakeman
    • , Cassandra White
    • , Crissa Bennett
    • , Jennifer Wu
    • , Rob Young
    • , Brian L. Youngstrom
    • , Paul Wohnoutka
    • , Richard A. Gibbs
    • , Jeffrey Rogers
    • , John G. Hohmann
    • , Michael J. Hawrylycz
    • , Robert F. Hevner
    • , Zoltán Molnár
    • , John W. Phillips
    • , Chinh Dang
    • , Allan R. Jones
    • , David G. Amaral
    • , Amy Bernard
    •  & Ed S. Lein
  • Article |

    Increased potential for branched-chain amino acid and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the gut microbiome of insulin-resistant individuals suggests that changes in the serum metabolome induced by dysbiosis, and driven by only a handful of species, contribute to the development of diabetes.

    • Helle Krogh Pedersen
    • , Valborg Gudmundsdottir
    • , Henrik Bjørn Nielsen
    • , Tuulia Hyotylainen
    • , Trine Nielsen
    • , Benjamin A. H. Jensen
    • , Kristoffer Forslund
    • , Falk Hildebrand
    • , Edi Prifti
    • , Gwen Falony
    • , Emmanuelle Le Chatelier
    • , Florence Levenez
    • , Joel Doré
    • , Ismo Mattila
    • , Damian R. Plichta
    • , Päivi Pöhö
    • , Lars I. Hellgren
    • , Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    • , Shinichi Sunagawa
    • , Sara Vieira-Silva
    • , Torben Jørgensen
    • , Jacob Bak Holm
    • , Kajetan Trošt
    • , MetaHIT Consortium
    • , Karsten Kristiansen
    • , Susanne Brix
    • , Jeroen Raes
    • , Jun Wang
    • , Torben Hansen
    • , Peer Bork
    • , Søren Brunak
    • , Matej Oresic
    • , S. Dusko Ehrlich
    •  & Oluf Pedersen

News Q&A

Feature

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