Volume 535 Issue 7610, 7 July 2016

Editorial

World View

  • World View |

    The Biological Weapons Convention needs to take the assessment of emerging scientific dangers more seriously, argues Malcolm Dando.

    • Malcolm Dando

Research Highlights

Social Selection

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    Chemist killed on Mexican university campus; Juno craft reaches Jupiter orbit; and Nobel laureates defend genetically modified organisms.

News

Correction

News Feature

  • News Feature |

    Late nights, typos, self-doubt and despair. Francis Collins, Sara Seager and Uta Frith dust off their theses, and reflect on what the PhD was like for them.

    • Kerri Smith
    •  & Noah Baker

Comment

  • Comment |

    Alastair Lewis and Peter Edwards call on researchers to test the accuracy of low-cost monitoring devices before regulators are flooded with questionable air-quality data.

    • Alastair Lewis
    •  & Peter Edwards
  • Comment |

    Thirty years on from the first congress on peer review, Drummond Rennie reflects on the improvements brought about by research into the process — and calls for more.

    • Drummond Rennie

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Ethan Carr traces the arc of influence in landscape creation and preservation from 'Capability' Brown to Frederick Law Olmsted and the US National Park Service.

    • Ethan Carr

Correspondence

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The Hitomi astronomical satellite observed gas motions in the Perseus galaxy cluster shortly before losing contact with Earth. Its findings are invaluable to studies of cluster physics and cosmology. See Letter p.117

    • Elizabeth Blanton
  • News & Views |

    An investigation of how ultracold molecules are broken apart by light reveals surprising, previously unobserved quantum effects. The work opens up avenues of research in quantum optics. See Letter p.122

    • David W. Chandler
  • News & Views |

    A range of neuronal mechanisms can enable animals to detect the direction of visual motion. Computational models now indicate that a factor as simple as eye size might explain some of this diversity. See Article p.105

    • Thomas Euler
    •  & Tom Baden
  • News & Views |

    A study reveals that human-driven disturbances in previously undisturbed Amazon rainforest can cause biodiversity losses as severe as those of deforestation. Urgent policy interventions are needed to preserve forest quality. See Letter p.144

    • David P. Edwards
  • News & Views |

    The protein PKM-ζ has been proposed to regulate the maintenance of memory in rodents, but this theory has been questioned. The finding that another isoform of the protein acts as a backup if PKM-ζ is lacking will influence this debate.

    • Paul W. Frankland
    •  & Sheena A. Josselyn

Introduction

Toolbox

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    Placing a light emitter in an ultra-small optical cavity results in coupling between matter and light, generating new forms of emission that can be exploited in practical or fundamental applications; here, a system is described in which strong light–matter coupling occurs at room temperature and in ambient conditions by aligning single dye molecules in the optical cavities between gold nanoparticles and surfaces.

    • Rohit Chikkaraddy
    • , Bart de Nijs
    • , Felix Benz
    • , Steven J. Barrow
    • , Oren A. Scherman
    • , Edina Rosta
    • , Angela Demetriadou
    • , Peter Fox
    • , Ortwin Hess
    •  & Jeremy J. Baumberg
  • Letter |

    Computer models of mantle convection with plate-like behaviour are used to demonstrate that the size–frequency distribution of tectonic plates on Earth is controlled by subduction geometry—the spacing between subducting slabs controls the layout of large plates, and the stresses caused by the bending of trenches break plates into smaller fragments.

    • Claire Mallard
    • , Nicolas Coltice
    • , Maria Seton
    • , R. Dietmar Müller
    •  & Paul J. Tackley
  • Letter |

    The computational design of an extremely stable icosahedral self-assembling protein nanocage is presented; the icosahedron should be useful for applications ranging from calibrating fluorescence microscopy to drug delivery.

    • Yang Hsia
    • , Jacob B. Bale
    • , Shane Gonen
    • , Dan Shi
    • , William Sheffler
    • , Kimberly K. Fong
    • , Una Nattermann
    • , Chunfu Xu
    • , Po-Ssu Huang
    • , Rashmi Ravichandran
    • , Sue Yi
    • , Trisha N. Davis
    • , Tamir Gonen
    • , Neil P. King
    •  & David Baker
  • Letter |

    A long-sought three-dimensional graphene-like carbon structure that resembles periodically networked carbon nanotubes is now readily available through lanthanum-catalysed carbon synthesis using a zeolite template.

    • Kyoungsoo Kim
    • , Taekyoung Lee
    • , Yonghyun Kwon
    • , Yongbeom Seo
    • , Jongchan Song
    • , Jung Ki Park
    • , Hyunsoo Lee
    • , Jeong Young Park
    • , Hyotcherl Ihee
    • , Sung June Cho
    •  & Ryong Ryoo
  • Letter |

    The photodissociation of 88Sr2 molecules is examined at ultracold temperatures with a high degree of control, and a wealth of quantum effects such as barrier tunnelling, matter—wave interference of reaction products and forbidden pathways are observed

    • M. McDonald
    • , B. H. McGuyer
    • , F. Apfelbeck
    • , C. -H. Lee
    • , I. Majewska
    • , R. Moszynski
    •  & T. Zelevinsky
  • Letter |

    When transcription and replication machineries collide on DNA, they can cause mutations to occur in the area near the collision; these mutations are now shown to include two types—duplications/deletions within the transcription unit and base substitutions in the cis-regulatory element of gene expression.

    • T. Sabari Sankar
    • , Brigitta D. Wastuwidyaningtyas
    • , Yuexin Dong
    • , Sarah A. Lewis
    •  & Jue D. Wang
  • Letter |

    Here, a small core protein of human adenoviruses is shown to associate with histones, sequestering proteins on host chromatin and preventing inflammatory proteins from being released and triggering inflammation.

    • Daphne C. Avgousti
    • , Christin Herrmann
    • , Katarzyna Kulej
    • , Neha J. Pancholi
    • , Nikolina Sekulic
    • , Joana Petrescu
    • , Rosalynn C. Molden
    • , Daniel Blumenthal
    • , Andrew J. Paris
    • , Emigdio D. Reyes
    • , Philomena Ostapchuk
    • , Patrick Hearing
    • , Steven H. Seeholzer
    • , G. Scott Worthen
    • , Ben E. Black
    • , Benjamin A. Garcia
    •  & Matthew D. Weitzman
  • Letter |

    Here, pharmacological and biochemical evidence is provided that shows that G-protein coupling to the β2-adrenergic receptor stabilizes a ‘closed’ conformation of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and that that the effects of the G protein on the ligand-binding site of the GPCR are observed even in the absence of a bound agonist.

    • Brian T. DeVree
    • , Jacob P. Mahoney
    • , Gisselle A. Vélez-Ruiz
    • , Soren G. F. Rasmussen
    • , Adam J. Kuszak
    • , Elin Edwald
    • , Juan-Jose Fung
    • , Aashish Manglik
    • , Matthieu Masureel
    • , Yang Du
    • , Rachel A. Matt
    • , Els Pardon
    • , Jan Steyaert
    • , Brian K. Kobilka
    •  & Roger K. Sunahara
  • Letter |

    Evaluation of the primary forests in the Brazilian state of Pará shows that anthropogenic disturbance can more than double the loss of biodiversity expected from deforestation.

    • Jos Barlow
    • , Gareth D. Lennox
    • , Joice Ferreira
    • , Erika Berenguer
    • , Alexander C. Lees
    • , Ralph Mac Nally
    • , James R. Thomson
    • , Silvio Frosini de Barros Ferraz
    • , Julio Louzada
    • , Victor Hugo Fonseca Oliveira
    • , Luke Parry
    • , Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro Solar
    • , Ima C. G. Vieira
    • , Luiz E. O. C. Aragão
    • , Rodrigo Anzolin Begotti
    • , Rodrigo F. Braga
    • , Thiago Moreira Cardoso
    • , Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira Jr
    • , Carlos M. Souza Jr
    • , Nárgila G. Moura
    • , Sâmia Serra Nunes
    • , João Victor Siqueira
    • , Renata Pardini
    • , Juliana M. Silveira
    • , Fernando Z. Vaz-de-Mello
    • , Ruan Carlo Stulpen Veiga
    • , Adriano Venturieri
    •  & Toby A. Gardner
  • Letter |

    High-resolution structures of the unliganded Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) and of GP bound to the drugs toremifene and ibuprofen are presented, providing insights into how the drugs inhibit viral fusion with the endosomal membrane.

    • Yuguang Zhao
    • , Jingshan Ren
    • , Karl Harlos
    • , Daniel M. Jones
    • , Antra Zeltina
    • , Thomas A. Bowden
    • , Sergi Padilla-Parra
    • , Elizabeth E. Fry
    •  & David I. Stuart
  • Letter |

    SHP099, a selective inhibitor of signalling meditator SHP2 with drug-like properties, has an allosteric mechanism of action whereby it stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation, and suppresses RAS–ERK signalling and proliferation in receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven cancer cell lines and mouse tumour xenograft models.

    • Ying-Nan P. Chen
    • , Matthew J. LaMarche
    • , Ho Man Chan
    • , Peter Fekkes
    • , Jorge Garcia-Fortanet
    • , Michael G. Acker
    • , Brandon Antonakos
    • , Christine Hiu-Tung Chen
    • , Zhouliang Chen
    • , Vesselina G. Cooke
    • , Jason R. Dobson
    • , Zhan Deng
    • , Feng Fei
    • , Brant Firestone
    • , Michelle Fodor
    • , Cary Fridrich
    • , Hui Gao
    • , Denise Grunenfelder
    • , Huai-Xiang Hao
    • , Jaison Jacob
    • , Samuel Ho
    • , Kathy Hsiao
    • , Zhao B. Kang
    • , Rajesh Karki
    • , Mitsunori Kato
    • , Jay Larrow
    • , Laura R. La Bonte
    • , Francois Lenoir
    • , Gang Liu
    • , Shumei Liu
    • , Dyuti Majumdar
    • , Matthew J. Meyer
    • , Mark Palermo
    • , Lawrence Perez
    • , Minying Pu
    • , Edmund Price
    • , Christopher Quinn
    • , Subarna Shakya
    • , Michael D. Shultz
    • , Joanna Slisz
    • , Kavitha Venkatesan
    • , Ping Wang
    • , Markus Warmuth
    • , Sarah Williams
    • , Guizhi Yang
    • , Jing Yuan
    • , Ji-Hu Zhang
    • , Ping Zhu
    • , Timothy Ramsey
    • , Nicholas J. Keen
    • , William R. Sellers
    • , Travis Stams
    •  & Pascal D. Fortin
  • Letter |

    Components of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated signal peptidase complex is required for infection by numerous flaviviruses, including West Nile, dengue and Zika viruses, but is not required for infection by other types of virus or for host protein synthesis.

    • Rong Zhang
    • , Jonathan J. Miner
    • , Matthew J. Gorman
    • , Keiko Rausch
    • , Holly Ramage
    • , James P. White
    • , Adam Zuiani
    • , Ping Zhang
    • , Estefania Fernandez
    • , Qiang Zhang
    • , Kimberly A. Dowd
    • , Theodore C. Pierson
    • , Sara Cherry
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Letter |

    X-ray observations of the core of the Perseus cluster reveal a remarkably quiescent atmosphere in which the gas has a line-of-sight velocity dispersion of about 164 kilometres per second in the region 30–60 kiloparsecs from the central nucleus; turbulent pressure support in the gas is four per cent of the thermodynamic pressure, necessitating only a small correction to the total cluster mass determined from hydrostatic equilibrium.

    • Felix Aharonian
    • , Hiroki Akamatsu
    • , Fumie Akimoto
    • , Steven W. Allen
    • , Naohisa Anabuki
    • , Lorella Angelini
    • , Keith Arnaud
    • , Marc Audard
    • , Hisamitsu Awaki
    • , Magnus Axelsson
    • , Aya Bamba
    • , Marshall Bautz
    • , Roger Blandford
    • , Laura Brenneman
    • , Gregory V. Brown
    • , Esra Bulbul
    • , Edward Cackett
    • , Maria Chernyakova
    • , Meng Chiao
    • , Paolo Coppi
    • , Elisa Costantini
    • , Jelle de Plaa
    • , Jan-Willem den Herder
    • , Chris Done
    • , Tadayasu Dotani
    • , Ken Ebisawa
    • , Megan Eckart
    • , Teruaki Enoto
    • , Yuichiro Ezoe
    • , Andrew C. Fabian
    • , Carlo Ferrigno
    • , Adam Foster
    • , Ryuichi Fujimoto
    • , Yasushi Fukazawa
    • , Akihiro Furuzawa
    • , Massimiliano Galeazzi
    • , Luigi Gallo
    • , Poshak Gandhi
    • , Margherita Giustini
    • , Andrea Goldwurm
    • , Liyi Gu
    • , Matteo Guainazzi
    • , Yoshito Haba
    • , Kouichi Hagino
    • , Kenji Hamaguchi
    • , Ilana Harrus
    • , Isamu Hatsukade
    • , Katsuhiro Hayashi
    • , Takayuki Hayashi
    • , Kiyoshi Hayashida
    • , Junko Hiraga
    • , Ann Hornschemeier
    • , Akio Hoshino
    • , John Hughes
    • , Ryo Iizuka
    • , Hajime Inoue
    • , Yoshiyuki Inoue
    • , Kazunori Ishibashi
    • , Manabu Ishida
    • , Kumi Ishikawa
    • , Yoshitaka Ishisaki
    • , Masayuki Itoh
    • , Naoko Iyomoto
    • , Jelle Kaastra
    • , Timothy Kallman
    • , Tuneyoshi Kamae
    • , Erin Kara
    • , Jun Kataoka
    • , Satoru Katsuda
    • , Junichiro Katsuta
    • , Madoka Kawaharada
    • , Nobuyuki Kawai
    • , Richard Kelley
    • , Dmitry Khangulyan
    • , Caroline Kilbourne
    • , Ashley King
    • , Takao Kitaguchi
    • , Shunji Kitamoto
    • , Tetsu Kitayama
    • , Takayoshi Kohmura
    • , Motohide Kokubun
    • , Shu Koyama
    • , Katsuji Koyama
    • , Peter Kretschmar
    • , Hans Krimm
    • , Aya Kubota
    • , Hideyo Kunieda
    • , Philippe Laurent
    • , François Lebrun
    • , Shiu-Hang Lee
    • , Maurice Leutenegger
    • , Olivier Limousin
    • , Michael Loewenstein
    • , Knox S. Long
    • , David Lumb
    • , Grzegorz Madejski
    • , Yoshitomo Maeda
    • , Daniel Maier
    • , Kazuo Makishima
    • , Maxim Markevitch
    • , Hironori Matsumoto
    • , Kyoko Matsushita
    • , Dan McCammon
    • , Brian McNamara
    • , Missagh Mehdipour
    • , Eric Miller
    • , Jon Miller
    • , Shin Mineshige
    • , Kazuhisa Mitsuda
    • , Ikuyuki Mitsuishi
    • , Takuya Miyazawa
    • , Tsunefumi Mizuno
    • , Hideyuki Mori
    • , Koji Mori
    • , Harvey Moseley
    • , Koji Mukai
    • , Hiroshi Murakami
    • , Toshio Murakami
    • , Richard Mushotzky
    • , Ryo Nagino
    • , Takao Nakagawa
    • , Hiroshi Nakajima
    • , Takeshi Nakamori
    • , Toshio Nakano
    • , Shinya Nakashima
    • , Kazuhiro Nakazawa
    • , Masayoshi Nobukawa
    • , Hirofumi Noda
    • , Masaharu Nomachi
    • , Steve O’Dell
    • , Hirokazu Odaka
    • , Takaya Ohashi
    • , Masanori Ohno
    • , Takashi Okajima
    • , Naomi Ota
    • , Masanobu Ozaki
    • , Frits Paerels
    • , Stephane Paltani
    • , Arvind Parmar
    • , Robert Petre
    • , Ciro Pinto
    • , Martin Pohl
    • , F. Scott Porter
    • , Katja Pottschmidt
    • , Brian Ramsey
    • , Christopher Reynolds
    • , Helen Russell
    • , Samar Safi-Harb
    • , Shinya Saito
    • , Kazuhiro Sakai
    • , Hiroaki Sameshima
    • , Goro Sato
    • , Kosuke Sato
    • , Rie Sato
    • , Makoto Sawada
    • , Norbert Schartel
    • , Peter Serlemitsos
    • , Hiromi Seta
    • , Megumi Shidatsu
    • , Aurora Simionescu
    • , Randall Smith
    • , Yang Soong
    • , Lukasz Stawarz
    • , Yasuharu Sugawara
    • , Satoshi Sugita
    • , Andrew Szymkowiak
    • , Hiroyasu Tajima
    • , Hiromitsu Takahashi
    • , Tadayuki Takahashi
    • , Shin’ichiro Takeda
    • , Yoh Takei
    • , Toru Tamagawa
    • , Keisuke Tamura
    • , Takayuki Tamura
    • , Takaaki Tanaka
    • , Yasuo Tanaka
    • , Yasuyuki Tanaka
    • , Makoto Tashiro
    • , Yuzuru Tawara
    • , Yukikatsu Terada
    • , Yuichi Terashima
    • , Francesco Tombesi
    • , Hiroshi Tomida
    • , Yohko Tsuboi
    • , Masahiro Tsujimoto
    • , Hiroshi Tsunemi
    • , Takeshi Tsuru
    • , Hiroyuki Uchida
    • , Hideki Uchiyama
    • , Yasunobu Uchiyama
    • , Shutaro Ueda
    • , Yoshihiro Ueda
    • , Shiro Ueno
    • , Shin’ichiro Uno
    • , Meg Urry
    • , Eugenio Ursino
    • , Cor de Vries
    • , Shin Watanabe
    • , Norbert Werner
    • , Daniel Wik
    • , Dan Wilkins
    • , Brian Williams
    • , Shinya Yamada
    • , Hiroya Yamaguchi
    • , Kazutaka Yamaoka
    • , Noriko Y. Yamasaki
    • , Makoto Yamauchi
    • , Shigeo Yamauchi
    • , Tahir Yaqoob
    • , Yoichi Yatsu
    • , Daisuke Yonetoku
    • , Atsumasa Yoshida
    • , Takayuki Yuasa
    • , Irina Zhuravleva
    •  & Abderahmen Zoghbi
  • Letter |

    A CRISPR screening approach shows that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) protein complex, are important for infection by dengue virus and other related mosquito-borne flaviviruses, whereas hepatitis C virus is dependent on distinct entry factors, RNA binding proteins and FAD biosynthesis.

    • Caleb D. Marceau
    • , Andreas S. Puschnik
    • , Karim Majzoub
    • , Yaw Shin Ooi
    • , Susan M. Brewer
    • , Gabriele Fuchs
    • , Kavya Swaminathan
    • , Miguel A. Mata
    • , Joshua E. Elias
    • , Peter Sarnow
    •  & Jan E. Carette

Article

  • Article |

    Directional selectivity in the detection of moving visual stimuli critically depends on starburst amacrine cells, which have been studied primarily in rabbit retina; a large-scale reconstruction of the mouse retina at a single-synapse level, along with experimental and theoretical analysis, shows that mouse retinal circuitry is adapted to the smaller eye size of mice.

    • Huayu Ding
    • , Robert G. Smith
    • , Alon Poleg-Polsky
    • , Jeffrey S. Diamond
    •  & Kevin L. Briggman

Perspective

Review Article

Column

  • Column |

    A postdoc job is good for your career, but don't get stuck in an academic cul-de-sac, says Søren-Peter Olesen.

    • Soeren-Peter Olesen
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