Volume 531 Issue 7595, 24 March 2016

This issue features a special on the ‘circular economy�, a term coined by Swiss architect-engineer Walter Stahel, who has been a leader in developing the concept of sustainability as applied to industrialized economies. In a Comment piece, Stahel outlines the key principles of a ‘waste-free� world: reuse, repair, remanufacture and upgrading. The ultimate goal, he writes, is to recycle atoms. John Mathews and Hao Tan track China’s progress towards a circular economy, a process that needs to be tracked using more sophisticated metrics, they suggest. In a third Comment, developmental psychologist Bruce Hood asks why we hoard possessions to enhance our social status and highlights the need to make recycled goods more socially desirable. Finally, Books & Arts focuses on how eco-design can make circular economy principles work. Cover art: Viktor Koen

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Enhancing synaptic connections between neurons in the brain's hippocampus that are normally activated during memory formation rescues memory deficits in a mouse model of early Alzheimer's disease. See Letter p.508

    • Prerana Shrestha
    •  & Eric Klann
  • News & Views |

    Migratory birds are declining globally. A broad study of European migratory birds finds that species that disperse widely during the non-breeding season are less likely to be in decline than are species with more restricted dispersion.

    • Richard A. Fuller
  • News & Views |

    Alkenyl halides are some of the most useful building blocks for synthesizing small organic molecules. A catalyst has now allowed their direct preparation from widely available alkenes using the cross-metathesis reaction. See Article p.459

    • David Sarlah
  • News & Views |

    The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466

    • T. Frede Thingstad
    •  & Gunnar Bratbak
  • News & Views |

    The presence of ice at two positions on opposite sides of the Moon suggests that the satellite's orientation was once shifted away from its present spin axis — a finding that has implications for the Moon's volcanic history. See Letter p.480

    • Ian Garrick-Bethell
  • News & Views |

    A cross-cultural experiment involving thousands of people worldwide shows that the prevalence of rule violations in a society, such as tax evasion and fraudulent politics, is detrimental to individuals' intrinsic honesty. See Letter p.496

    • Shaul Shalvi
  • Articles

  • Article |

    One shortcoming of olefin metathesis has been that acyclic alkenyl halides could not be generated efficiently and stereoselectively; but now halo-substituted molybdenum alkylidene species are shown to be able to participate in high-yielding olefin metathesis reactions that afford acyclic 1,2-disubstituted Z-alkenyl halides.

    • Ming Joo Koh
    • , Thach T. Nguyen
    • , Hanmo Zhang
    • , Richard R. Schrock
    •  & Amir H. Hoveyda
  • Article |

    An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes challenges the view that lytic phage are believed to predominate when the density of their hosts increase and shows instead that lysogeny is more important at high host densities; the authors also show that this model is consistent with predator–prey dynamics in a range of other ecosystems, such as animal-associated, sediment and soil systems.

    • B. Knowles
    • , C. B. Silveira
    • , B. A. Bailey
    • , K. Barott
    • , V. A. Cantu
    • , A. G. Cobián-Güemes
    • , F. H. Coutinho
    • , E. A. Dinsdale
    • , B. Felts
    • , K. A. Furby
    • , E. E. George
    • , K. T. Green
    • , G. B. Gregoracci
    • , A. F. Haas
    • , J. M. Haggerty
    • , E. R. Hester
    • , N. Hisakawa
    • , L. W. Kelly
    • , Y. W. Lim
    • , M. Little
    • , A. Luque
    • , T. McDole-Somera
    • , K. McNair
    • , L. S. de Oliveira
    • , S. D. Quistad
    • , N. L. Robinett
    • , E. Sala
    • , P. Salamon
    • , S. E. Sanchez
    • , S. Sandin
    • , G. G. Z. Silva
    • , J. Smith
    • , C. Sullivan
    • , C. Thompson
    • , M. J. A. Vermeij
    • , M. Youle
    • , C. Young
    • , B. Zgliczynski
    • , R. Brainard
    • , R. A. Edwards
    • , J. Nulton
    • , F. Thompson
    •  & F. Rohwer
  • Article |

    The loss of the TP53 gene is often involved in the development of human cancer; here, the deletion of other genes in the vicinity is shown also to contribute to cancer progression in a mouse model.

    • Yu Liu
    • , Chong Chen
    • , Zhengmin Xu
    • , Claudio Scuoppo
    • , Cory D. Rillahan
    • , Jianjiong Gao
    • , Barbara Spitzer
    • , Benedikt Bosbach
    • , Edward R. Kastenhuber
    • , Timour Baslan
    • , Sarah Ackermann
    • , Lihua Cheng
    • , Qingguo Wang
    • , Ting Niu
    • , Nikolaus Schultz
    • , Ross L. Levine
    • , Alea A. Mills
    •  & Scott W. Lowe
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Deep γ-ray observations of the Galactic Centre with arcminute angular resolution show traces of petaelectronvolt protons within the central ten parsecs of our Galaxy; the accelerator of these particles could have provided a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays in the past.

    • HESS Collaboration
    • , A. Abramowski
    • , F. Aharonian
    • , F. Ait Benkhali
    • , A. G. Akhperjanian
    • , E. O. Angüner
    • , M. Backes
    • , A. Balzer
    • , Y. Becherini
    • , J. Becker Tjus
    • , D. Berge
    • , S. Bernhard
    • , K. Bernlöhr
    • , E. Birsin
    • , R. Blackwell
    • , M. Böttcher
    • , C. Boisson
    • , J. Bolmont
    • , P. Bordas
    • , J. Bregeon
    • , F. Brun
    • , P. Brun
    • , M. Bryan
    • , T. Bulik
    • , J. Carr
    • , S. Casanova
    • , N. Chakraborty
    • , R. Chalme-Calvet
    • , R. C. G. Chaves
    • , A. Chen
    • , M. Chrétien
    • , S. Colafrancesco
    • , G. Cologna
    • , J. Conrad
    • , C. Couturier
    • , Y. Cui
    • , I. D. Davids
    • , B. Degrange
    • , C. Deil
    • , P. deWilt
    • , A. Djannati-Ataï
    • , W. Domainko
    • , A. Donath
    • , L. O’C. Drury
    • , G. Dubus
    • , K. Dutson
    • , J. Dyks
    • , M. Dyrda
    • , T. Edwards
    • , K. Egberts
    • , P. Eger
    • , J.-P. Ernenwein
    • , P. Espigat
    • , C. Farnier
    • , S. Fegan
    • , F. Feinstein
    • , M. V. Fernandes
    • , D. Fernandez
    • , A. Fiasson
    • , G. Fontaine
    • , A. Förster
    • , M. Füßling
    • , S. Gabici
    • , M. Gajdus
    • , Y. A. Gallant
    • , T. Garrigoux
    • , G. Giavitto
    • , B. Giebels
    • , J. F. Glicenstein
    • , D. Gottschall
    • , A. Goyal
    • , M.-H. Grondin
    • , M. Grudzińska
    • , D. Hadasch
    • , S. Häffner
    • , J. Hahn
    • , J. Hawkes
    • , G. Heinzelmann
    • , G. Henri
    • , G. Hermann
    • , O. Hervet
    • , A. Hillert
    • , J. A. Hinton
    • , W. Hofmann
    • , P. Hofverberg
    • , C. Hoischen
    • , M. Holler
    • , D. Horns
    • , A. Ivascenko
    • , A. Jacholkowska
    • , M. Jamrozy
    • , M. Janiak
    • , F. Jankowsky
    • , I. Jung-Richardt
    • , M. A. Kastendieck
    • , K. Katarzyński
    • , U. Katz
    • , D. Kerszberg
    • , B. Khélifi
    • , M. Kieffer
    • , S. Klepser
    • , D. Klochkov
    • , W. Kluźniak
    • , D. Kolitzus
    • , Nu. Komin
    • , K. Kosack
    • , S. Krakau
    • , F. Krayzel
    • , P. P. Krüger
    • , H. Laffon
    • , G. Lamanna
    • , J. Lau
    • , J. Lefaucheur
    • , V. Lefranc
    • , A. Lemiére
    • , M. Lemoine-Goumard
    • , J.-P. Lenain
    • , T. Lohse
    • , A. Lopatin
    • , C.-C. Lu
    • , R. Lui
    • , V. Marandon
    • , A. Marcowith
    • , C. Mariaud
    • , R. Marx
    • , G. Maurin
    • , N. Maxted
    • , M. Mayer
    • , P. J. Meintjes
    • , U. Menzler
    • , M. Meyer
    • , A. M. W. Mitchell
    • , R. Moderski
    • , M. Mohamed
    • , K. Morå
    • , E. Moulin
    • , T. Murach
    • , M. de Naurois
    • , J. Niemiec
    • , L. Oakes
    • , H. Odaka
    • , S. Öttl
    • , S. Ohm
    • , B. Opitz
    • , M. Ostrowski
    • , I. Oya
    • , M. Panter
    • , R. D. Parsons
    • , M. Paz Arribas
    • , N. W. Pekeur
    • , G. Pelletier
    • , P.-O. Petrucci
    • , B. Peyaud
    • , S. Pita
    • , H. Poon
    • , H. Prokoph
    • , G. Pühlhofer
    • , M. Punch
    • , A. Quirrenbach
    • , S. Raab
    • , I. Reichardt
    • , A. Reimer
    • , O. Reimer
    • , M. Renaud
    • , R. de los Reyes
    • , F. Rieger
    • , C. Romoli
    • , S. Rosier-Lees
    • , G. Rowell
    • , B. Rudak
    • , C. B. Rulten
    • , V. Sahakian
    • , D. Salek
    • , D. A. Sanchez
    • , A. Santangelo
    • , M. Sasaki
    • , R. Schlickeiser
    • , F. Schüssler
    • , A. Schulz
    • , U. Schwanke
    • , S. Schwemmer
    • , A. S. Seyffert
    • , R. Simoni
    • , H. Sol
    • , F. Spanier
    • , G. Spengler
    • , F. Spies
    • , Ł. Stawarz
    • , R. Steenkamp
    • , C. Stegmann
    • , F. Stinzing
    • , K. Stycz
    • , I. Sushch
    • , J.-P. Tavernet
    • , T. Tavernier
    • , A. M. Taylor
    • , R. Terrier
    • , M. Tluczykont
    • , C. Trichard
    • , R. Tuffs
    • , K. Valerius
    • , J. van der Walt
    • , C. van Eldik
    • , B. van Soelen
    • , G. Vasileiadis
    • , J. Veh
    • , C. Venter
    • , A. Viana
    • , P. Vincent
    • , J. Vink
    • , F. Voisin
    • , H. J. Völk
    • , T. Vuillaume
    • , S. J. Wagner
    • , P. Wagner
    • , R. M. Wagner
    • , M. Weidinger
    • , Q. Weitzel
    • , R. White
    • , A. Wierzcholska
    • , P. Willmann
    • , A. Wörnlein
    • , D. Wouters
    • , R. Yang
    • , V. Zabalza
    • , D. Zaborov
    • , M. Zacharias
    • , A. A. Zdziarski
    • , A. Zech
    • , F. Zefi
    • , N. Żywucka
    •  & HESS Collaboration
  • Letter |

    Polar hydrogen deposits on the Moon provide evidence that its spin axis has shifted; analysis of the locations of these deposits and of the lunar figure suggests that the shift occurred as a result of changes in the Moon’s moments of inertia caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region.

    • M. A. Siegler
    • , R. S. Miller
    • , J. T. Keane
    • , M. Laneuville
    • , D. A. Paige
    • , I. Matsuyama
    • , D. J. Lawrence
    • , A. Crotts
    •  & M. J. Poston
  • Letter |

    Incomplete premelting at the edges of monolayer colloidal crystals is triggered by a bulk solid–solid phase transition and truncated by a mechanical instability that induces homogeneous bulk melting of the crystal; these observations challenge existing theories of two-dimensional melting.

    • Bo Li
    • , Feng Wang
    • , Di Zhou
    • , Yi Peng
    • , Ran Ni
    •  & Yilong Han
  • Letter |

    Synthesis of atomically precise zigzag edges in graphene nanoribbons is demonstrated using a bottom-up strategy based on surface-assisted arrangement and reaction of precursor monomers; these nanoribbons have edge-localized states with large energy splittings.

    • Pascal Ruffieux
    • , Shiyong Wang
    • , Bo Yang
    • , Carlos Sánchez-Sánchez
    • , Jia Liu
    • , Thomas Dienel
    • , Leopold Talirz
    • , Prashant Shinde
    • , Carlo A. Pignedoli
    • , Daniele Passerone
    • , Tim Dumslaff
    • , Xinliang Feng
    • , Klaus Müllen
    •  & Roman Fasel
  • Letter |

    Variability in North African dust dispersal, which affects air quality and the amount of radiation reaching the ground, is captured by the wind patterns over the Sahara; climate models suggest a downward trend in dust concentration with increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

    • Amato T. Evan
    • , Cyrille Flamant
    • , Marco Gaetani
    •  & Françoise Guichard
  • Letter |

    To test whether there is a relationship between the level of national corruption and the intrinsic honesty of individuals, a behavioural test of the honesty of people from 23 countries was conducted; the authors found that high national scores on an index of rule-breaking are linked with reduced personal honesty.

    • Simon Gächter
    •  & Jonathan F. Schulz
  • Letter |

    Nuclear DNA sequences from Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins show they were more closely related to Neanderthals than to Denisovans, and indicate a population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans that predates 430,000 years ago.

    • Matthias Meyer
    • , Juan-Luis Arsuaga
    • , Cesare de Filippo
    • , Sarah Nagel
    • , Ayinuer Aximu-Petri
    • , Birgit Nickel
    • , Ignacio Martínez
    • , Ana Gracia
    • , José María Bermúdez de Castro
    • , Eudald Carbonell
    • , Bence Viola
    • , Janet Kelso
    • , Kay Prüfer
    •  & Svante Pääbo

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    Tracing the fate of circulating tumour cells by intravital two-photon lung imaging shows that tumours produce microparticles as they arrive and these migrate along the lung vasculature and are mostly taken up by interstitial myeloid cells, in a process that contributes to metastatic seeding; a minor subset of microparticles is engulfed by conventional dendritic cells, which are thought to contribute to the initiation of an anti-tumour immune response in lung-draining lymph nodes.

    • Mark B. Headley
    • , Adriaan Bins
    • , Alyssa Nip
    • , Edward W. Roberts
    • , Mark R. Looney
    • , Audrey Gerard
    •  & Matthew F. Krummel
  • Letter |

    A known oncogene, MITF, resides in a region of chromosome 3 that is amplified in melanomas and associated with poor prognosis; now, a long non-coding RNA gene, SAMMSON, is shown to also lie in this region, to also act as a melanoma-specific survival oncogene, and to be a promising therapeutic target for anti-melanoma therapy.

    • Eleonora Leucci
    • , Roberto Vendramin
    • , Marco Spinazzi
    • , Patrick Laurette
    • , Mark Fiers
    • , Jasper Wouters
    • , Enrico Radaelli
    • , Sven Eyckerman
    • , Carina Leonelli
    • , Katrien Vanderheyden
    • , Aljosja Rogiers
    • , Els Hermans
    • , Pieter Baatsen
    • , Stein Aerts
    • , Frederic Amant
    • , Stefan Van Aelst
    • , Joost van den Oord
    • , Bart de Strooper
    • , Irwin Davidson
    • , Denis L. J. Lafontaine
    • , Kris Gevaert
    • , Jo Vandesompele
    • , Pieter Mestdagh
    •  & Jean-Christophe Marine
  • Letter |

    The GCN2 kinase is shown to have a protective role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation during amino acid starvation in a mouse model of colitis.

    • Rajesh Ravindran
    • , Jens Loebbermann
    • , Helder I. Nakaya
    • , Nooruddin Khan
    • , Hualing Ma
    • , Leonardo Gama
    • , Deepa K. Machiah
    • , Benton Lawson
    • , Paul Hakimpour
    • , Yi-chong Wang
    • , Shuzhao Li
    • , Prachi Sharma
    • , Randal J. Kaufman
    • , Jennifer Martinez
    •  & Bali Pulendran
  • Letter |

    PGC1α protects against kidney injury by upregulating enzymes that enhance nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and driving local accumulation of the fatty acid breakdown product β-hydroxybutyrate, which leads to increased production of the renoprotective prostaglandin E2.

    • Mei T. Tran
    • , Zsuzsanna K. Zsengeller
    • , Anders H. Berg
    • , Eliyahu V. Khankin
    • , Manoj K. Bhasin
    • , Wondong Kim
    • , Clary B. Clish
    • , Isaac E. Stillman
    • , S. Ananth Karumanchi
    • , Eugene P. Rhee
    •  & Samir M. Parikh

Corrections

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