Volume 531 Issue 7594, 17 March 2016

Protective suits left to dry after an Ebola training session held by the Spanish Red Cross in Madrid in October 2014. A new study in this issue reports the discovery of a small-molecule drug, GS-5734, which has antiviral activity against Ebola and other filoviruses, and is capable of providing post-exposure protection against Ebola virus in 100% of infected macaques tested. Now in clinical trials (http://go.nature.com/PEW2Oi), the drug targets the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and is readily scalable for future outbreaks. GS-5734 is able to distribute to sanctuary sites for viral replication including the testes, eye and brain, offering the hope that this drug may also be able to clear recrudescent and persistent virus infection. Cover photo: Susana Vera/Reuters

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Careers

    Naturejobs

  • Feature |

    Career-development plans can point researchers in directions they might not have expected, but they take commitment.

    • Paul Smaglik
  • Q&A |

    Christina Papke describes how she found the perfect job in research development.

    • Monya Baker
  • Futures

  • Futures |

    Interactive fieldwork.

    • S. R. Algernon

Specials

Research

    Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Scott R. Saleska
    • , Jin Wu
    • , Kaiyu Guan
    • , Alessandro C. Araujo
    • , Alfredo Huete
    • , Antonio D. Nobre
    •  & Natalia Restrepo-Coupe
  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Douglas C. Morton
    • , Jyoteshwar Nagol
    • , Claudia C. Carabajal
    • , Jacqueline Rosette
    • , Jacqueline Rosette
    • , Michael Palace
    • , Bruce D. Cook
    • , Eric F. Vermote
    • , David J. Harding
    •  & Peter R. J. North
  • News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Microscopy reveals how nanowires of a widely used semiconductor grow during preparation. The findings will allow the crystal phases of such nanowires to be engineered — a crucial advance for materials science. See Article p.317

    • Anna Fontcuberta i Morral
  • News & Views |

    Stem-cell engineering has allowed successful cornea transplantations in rabbits and the regeneration of transparent lens tissue in children, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of this approach. See Article p.323 & Letter p.376

    • Julie T. Daniels
  • News & Views |

    Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel use in China have grown dramatically in the past few decades, yet it emerges that the country's relative contribution to global climate change has remained surprisingly constant. See Letter p.357

    • Dominick V. Spracklen
  • News & Views |

    Scientists have created soft microrobots whose body shapes can be controlled by structured light, and which self-propel by means of travelling-wave body deformations similar to those exhibited by swimming protozoa.

    • Igor S. Aranson
  • News & Views |

    The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus has been found to co-opt a host-cell enzyme that targets the Smc5/6 protein complex for degradation. The finding identifies Smc5/6 as a cellular antiviral factor. See Letter p.386

    • T. Jake Liang
  • News & Views |

    An in situ experiment finds that reducing the acidity of the seawater surrounding a natural coral reef significantly increases reef calcification, suggesting that ocean acidification may already be slowing coral growth. See Letter p.362

    • Janice M. Lough
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Crystal phase switching between zinc-blende and wurtzite phases during the growth of gallium arsenide nanowires is observed experimentally, and explained via changes in the geometry of the catalytic droplet sitting on top of the growing nanowire.

    • Daniel Jacobsson
    • , Federico Panciera
    • , Jerry Tersoff
    • , Mark C. Reuter
    • , Sebastian Lehmann
    • , Stephan Hofmann
    • , Kimberly A. Dick
    •  & Frances M. Ross
  • Article |

    A new procedure for cataract removal that preserves lens epithelial progenitor cells in mammals, which require Pax6 and Bmi1 for their self-renewal, achieves lens regeneration in rabbits, macaques and in infants with cataracts.

    • Haotian Lin
    • , Hong Ouyang
    • , Jie Zhu
    • , Shan Huang
    • , Zhenzhen Liu
    • , Shuyi Chen
    • , Guiqun Cao
    • , Gen Li
    • , Robert A. J. Signer
    • , Yanxin Xu
    • , Christopher Chung
    • , Ying Zhang
    • , Danni Lin
    • , Sherrina Patel
    • , Frances Wu
    • , Huimin Cai
    • , Jiayi Hou
    • , Cindy Wen
    • , Maryam Jafari
    • , Xialin Liu
    • , Lixia Luo
    • , Jin Zhu
    • , Austin Qiu
    • , Rui Hou
    • , Baoxin Chen
    • , Jiangna Chen
    • , David Granet
    • , Christopher Heichel
    • , Fu Shang
    • , Xuri Li
    • , Michal Krawczyk
    • , Dorota Skowronska-Krawczyk
    • , Yujuan Wang
    • , William Shi
    • , Daniel Chen
    • , Zheng Zhong
    • , Sheng Zhong
    • , Liangfang Zhang
    • , Shaochen Chen
    • , Sean J. Morrison
    • , Richard L. Maas
    • , Kang Zhang
    •  & Yizhi Liu
  • Article |

    Here the authors use in crystallo enzymology to obtain structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle and reveal the mechanism by which the bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA–BcsB translocates the nascent cellulose polymer.

    • Jacob L. W. Morgan
    • , Joshua T. McNamara
    • , Michael Fischer
    • , Jamie Rich
    • , Hong-Ming Chen
    • , Stephen G. Withers
    •  & Jochen Zimmer
  • Article |

    X-ray crystal structures of the M1 and M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, revealing differences in the orthosteric and allosteric binding sites that help to explain the subtype selectivity of drugs targeting this family of receptors.

    • David M. Thal
    • , Bingfa Sun
    • , Dan Feng
    • , Vindhya Nawaratne
    • , Katie Leach
    • , Christian C. Felder
    • , Mark G. Bures
    • , David A. Evans
    • , William I. Weis
    • , Priti Bachhawat
    • , Tong Sun Kobilka
    • , Patrick M. Sexton
    • , Brian K. Kobilka
    •  & Arthur Christopoulos
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Observations of γ-ray emission from the microquasar V404 Cygni during a recent period of strong flaring activity show spectral features at around 511 kiloelectronvolts, which are clear signatures of variable positron annihilation, implying a high rate of positron production.

    • Thomas Siegert
    • , Roland Diehl
    • , Jochen Greiner
    • , Martin G. H. Krause
    • , Andrei M. Beloborodov
    • , Marion Cadolle Bel
    • , Fabrizia Guglielmetti
    • , Jerome Rodriguez
    • , Andrew W. Strong
    •  & Xiaoling Zhang
  • Letter |

    By calculating the rotational figure of Mars and its surface topography before the Tharsis volcanic region caused true polar wander, it is shown that Tharsis formed during the Noachian and Hesperian periods at about the same time as the valley networks; early Mars climate simulations suggest icy precipitation in a latitudinal band in the southern hemisphere.

    • Sylvain Bouley
    • , David Baratoux
    • , Isamu Matsuyama
    • , Francois Forget
    • , Antoine Séjourné
    • , Martin Turbet
    •  & Francois Costard
  • Letter |

    Magnetic molecules are candidates for solid-state spin qubits from which a quantum computer might be constructed, but the magnetic interactions between such molecules typically lead to unwanted decoherence; now magnetic molecules have been designed in such a way that their spin dynamics are energetically protected against the decoherence-inducing interactions.

    • Muhandis Shiddiq
    • , Dorsa Komijani
    • , Yan Duan
    • , Alejandro Gaita-Ariño
    • , Eugenio Coronado
    •  & Stephen Hill
  • Letter |

    Chiral nematic liquid crystals are self-organized helical superstructures in which the helices can stand or lie, and lie in either a uniform or a random way; here, the helices are reversibly driven from a standing arrangement to a uniform lying arrangement and then rotated in-plane—solely by light.

    • Zhi-gang Zheng
    • , Yannian Li
    • , Hari Krishna Bisoyi
    • , Ling Wang
    • , Timothy J. Bunning
    •  & Quan Li
  • Letter |

    Using a global coupled biogeochemistry–climate model and a chemistry and transport model reveals that China’s present-day global radiative forcing is about ten per cent of the current global total, made up of both warming and cooling contributions; if in the future China reduces the cooling forcings, global warming could accelerate.

    • Bengang Li
    • , Thomas Gasser
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Shu Tao
    • , Yves Balkanski
    • , Didier Hauglustaine
    • , Juan-Pablo Boisier
    • , Zhuo Chen
    • , Mengtian Huang
    • , Laurent Zhaoxin Li
    • , Yue Li
    • , Hongyan Liu
    • , Junfeng Liu
    • , Shushi Peng
    • , Zehao Shen
    • , Zhenzhong Sun
    • , Rong Wang
    • , Tao Wang
    • , Guodong Yin
    • , Yi Yin
    • , Hui Zeng
    • , Zhenzhong Zeng
    •  & Feng Zhou
  • Letter |

    A manipulative experiment in which a reef is alkalinized in situ shows that calcification rates are likely to be lower already than they were in pre-industrial times because of acidification.

    • Rebecca Albright
    • , Lilian Caldeira
    • , Jessica Hosfelt
    • , Lester Kwiatkowski
    • , Jana K. Maclaren
    • , Benjamin M. Mason
    • , Yana Nebuchina
    • , Aaron Ninokawa
    • , Julia Pongratz
    • , Katharine L. Ricke
    • , Tanya Rivlin
    • , Kenneth Schneider
    • , Marine Sesboüé
    • , Kathryn Shamberger
    • , Jacob Silverman
    • , Kennedy Wolfe
    • , Kai Zhu
    •  & Ken Caldeira
  • Letter |

    Vocalizations were recorded for over eight distinct whale species as they converged on a shoal of herring to feed; the predators divided the shoal into overlapping but species-specific foraging sectors and the activities of the whales changed between day and night.

    • Delin Wang
    • , Heriberto Garcia
    • , Wei Huang
    • , Duong D. Tran
    • , Ankita D. Jain
    • , Dong Hoon Yi
    • , Zheng Gong
    • , J. Michael Jech
    • , Olav Rune Godø
    • , Nicholas C. Makris
    •  & Purnima Ratilal
  • Letter |

    Igf1 is identified in mice as an experience-induced gene that functions cell-autonomously to increase inhibitory input onto a disinhibitory subtype of GABAergic neurons in the cortex, affecting the downstream excitation–inhibition balance within circuits that regulate visual acuity, and providing a novel example of experience modulating neural plasticity.

    • A. R. Mardinly
    • , I. Spiegel
    • , A. Patrizi
    • , E. Centofante
    • , J. E. Bazinet
    • , C. P. Tzeng
    • , C. Mandel-Brehm
    • , D. A. Harmin
    • , H. Adesnik
    • , M. Fagiolini
    •  & M. E. Greenberg
  • Letter |

    A protocol has been developed to use human induced pluripotent stem cells to obtain a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multizone, which includes distinct cell lineages of the eye, including the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium that can be expanded to form a functional corneal epithelium when transplanted to an animal model of corneal visual impairment.

    • Ryuhei Hayashi
    • , Yuki Ishikawa
    • , Yuzuru Sasamoto
    • , Ryosuke Katori
    • , Naoki Nomura
    • , Tatsuya Ichikawa
    • , Saori Araki
    • , Takeshi Soma
    • , Satoshi Kawasaki
    • , Kiyotoshi Sekiguchi
    • , Andrew J. Quantock
    • , Motokazu Tsujikawa
    •  & Kohji Nishida

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    The discovery is reported of a small molecule drug, GS-5734, which has antiviral activity against Ebola virus and other filoviruses, and is capable of providing post-exposure therapeutic protection against lethal disease in 100% of drug-treated nonhuman primates infected with Ebola virus; the drug targets viral RNA polymerase and can distribute to sanctuary sites (such as testes, eyes and brain), suggesting that it may be able to clear persistent virus infection.

    • Travis K. Warren
    • , Robert Jordan
    • , Michael K. Lo
    • , Adrian S. Ray
    • , Richard L. Mackman
    • , Veronica Soloveva
    • , Dustin Siegel
    • , Michel Perron
    • , Roy Bannister
    • , Hon C. Hui
    • , Nate Larson
    • , Robert Strickley
    • , Jay Wells
    • , Kelly S. Stuthman
    • , Sean A. Van Tongeren
    • , Nicole L. Garza
    • , Ginger Donnelly
    • , Amy C. Shurtleff
    • , Cary J. Retterer
    • , Dima Gharaibeh
    • , Rouzbeh Zamani
    • , Tara Kenny
    • , Brett P. Eaton
    • , Elizabeth Grimes
    • , Lisa S. Welch
    • , Laura Gomba
    • , Catherine L. Wilhelmsen
    • , Donald K. Nichols
    • , Jonathan E. Nuss
    • , Elyse R. Nagle
    • , Jeffrey R. Kugelman
    • , Gustavo Palacios
    • , Edward Doerffler
    • , Sean Neville
    • , Ernest Carra
    • , Michael O. Clarke
    • , Lijun Zhang
    • , Willard Lew
    • , Bruce Ross
    • , Queenie Wang
    • , Kwon Chun
    • , Lydia Wolfe
    • , Darius Babusis
    • , Yeojin Park
    • , Kirsten M. Stray
    • , Iva Trancheva
    • , Joy Y. Feng
    • , Ona Barauskas
    • , Yili Xu
    • , Pamela Wong
    • , Molly R. Braun
    • , Mike Flint
    • , Laura K. McMullan
    • , Shan-Shan Chen
    • , Rachel Fearns
    • , Swami Swaminathan
    • , Douglas L. Mayers
    • , Christina F. Spiropoulou
    • , William A. Lee
    • , Stuart T. Nichol
    • , Tomas Cihlar
    •  & Sina Bavari
  • Letter |

    Hepatitis B virus X protein stimulates transcription from the viral DNA episome by hijacking the host ubiquitin machinery to target the Smc5/6 complex for degradation.

    • Adrien Decorsière
    • , Henrik Mueller
    • , Pieter C. van Breugel
    • , Fabien Abdul
    • , Laetitia Gerossier
    • , Rudolf K. Beran
    • , Christine M. Livingston
    • , Congrong Niu
    • , Simon P. Fletcher
    • , Olivier Hantz
    •  & Michel Strubin
  • Letter |

    Maternal mRNAs are tethered within the Drosophila germ plasm via base-pairing interactions between mRNAs and piRNPs containing the Aub Piwi protein; the preference for certain mRNAs to be tethered appears to be related to their longer length, which provides more potential piRNP-binding sites, and the results suggest a new role for piRNAs in germ-cell specification independent of their role in transposon silencing.

    • Anastassios Vourekas
    • , Panagiotis Alexiou
    • , Nicholas Vrettos
    • , Manolis Maragkakis
    •  & Zissimos Mourelatos

Corrections

    Corrigenda

  • Corrigendum |

    • Audrey Letourneau
    • , Federico A. Santoni
    • , Ximena Bonilla
    • , M. Reza Sailani
    • , David Gonzalez
    • , Jop Kind
    • , Claire Chevalier
    • , Robert Thurman
    • , Richard S. Sandstrom
    • , Youssef Hibaoui
    • , Marco Garieri
    • , Konstantin Popadin
    • , Emilie Falconnet
    • , Maryline Gagnebin
    • , Corinne Gehrig
    • , Anne Vannier
    • , Michel Guipponi
    • , Laurent Farinelli
    • , Daniel Robyr
    • , Eugenia Migliavacca
    • , Christelle Borel
    • , Samuel Deutsch
    • , Anis Feki
    • , John A. Stamatoyannopoulos
    • , Yann Herault
    • , Bas van Steensel
    • , Roderic Guigo
    •  & Stylianos E. Antonarakis
  • Corrigendum |

    • Alejandro De Los Angeles
    • , Francesco Ferrari
    • , Ruibin Xi
    • , Yuko Fujiwara
    • , Nissim Benvenisty
    • , Hongkui Deng
    • , Konrad Hochedlinger
    • , Rudolf Jaenisch
    • , Soohyun Lee
    • , Harry G. Leitch
    • , M. William Lensch
    • , Ernesto Lujan
    • , Duanqing Pei
    • , Janet Rossant
    • , Marius Wernig
    • , Peter J. Park
    •  & George Q. Daley
  • Corrigendum |

    • Alejandro De Los Angeles
    • , Francesco Ferrari
    • , Yuko Fujiwara
    • , Ronald Mathieu
    • , Soohyun Lee
    • , Semin Lee
    • , Ho-Chou Tu
    • , Samantha Ross
    • , Stephanie Chou
    • , Minh Nguyen
    • , Zhaoting Wu
    • , Thorold W. Theunissen
    • , Benjamin E. Powell
    • , Sumeth Imsoonthornruksa
    • , Jiekai Chen
    • , Marti Borkent
    • , Vladislav Krupalnik
    • , Ernesto Lujan
    • , Marius Wernig
    • , Jacob H. Hanna
    • , Konrad Hochedlinger
    • , Duanqing Pei
    • , Rudolf Jaenisch
    • , Hongkui Deng
    • , Stuart H. Orkin
    • , Peter J. Park
    •  & George Q. Daley
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