Volume 531 Issue 7592, 3 March 2016

Volume 531 Issue 7592

The eukaryote cell is so much larger and more complex than the cells of bacteria and archaea that it is hard to recreate the steps whereby it evolved. One current view is that the evolution of eukaryotes was triggered when an archaea-like cell accommodated the bacteria that went on to become mitochondria. An alternative view is that eukaryotes were well on the way to their modern form before they acquired the bacteria that became mitochondria. This second view is supported by a study by Alexandros Pittis and Toni Gabald showing that mitochondrial genes are more closely similar to those of their supposed bacterial relations than many other eukaryote genes are to their own inferred prokaryote cousins. This result, which challenges current views, suggests that mitochondria were late additions to a eukaryote cell that was already evolving. Cover: Iris Joval & Toni Gabald

This Week

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Careers

    Naturejobs

  • Feature |

    Limited institutional resources mean that single parents often need a network of support to further their scientific careers.

    • Helen Shen
  • Q&A |

    Garen Wintemute has spent his career — and more than US$1 million of his own funds — studying firearm violence.

    • Virginia Gewin
  • Futures

  • Futures |

    Let there be sunlight.

    • Natalia Theodoridou

Specials

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Single-molecule experiments have revealed that chemical reactions can be controlled using electric fields — and that the reaction rate is sensitive to both the direction and the strength of the applied field. See Letter p.88

    • Limin Xiang
    •  & N. J. Tao
  • News & Views |

    A large phylogenomics study reveals that the symbiotic event that led to the emergence of organelles known as mitochondria may have occurred later in the evolution of complex cells than was thought. See Letter p.101

    • Thijs J. G. Ettema
  • News & Views |

    The discovery of gravitational waves from a merging black-hole system opens a window on the Universe that promises to test gravity at its strongest, and to reveal many surprises about black holes and other astrophysical systems.

    • M. Coleman Miller
  • News & Views |

    In mice, a high-fat diet has now been found to induce intestinal progenitor cells to adopt a more stem-cell-like fate, altering the size of the gut and increasing tumour incidence. See Article p.53

    • Chi Luo
    •  & Pere Puigserver
  • News & Views |

    The development of a radio technique for detecting cosmic rays casts fresh light on the origins of some of these accelerated particles, and suggests that they might have travelled much farther than was previously thought. See Letter p.70

    • Andrew M. Taylor
  • News & Views |

    In Hirschsprung disease, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is missing from the distal bowel. It emerges that postnatal transplantation of stem-cell-derived ENS precursors can prevent death in a mouse model of the disease. See Letter p.105

    • Robert O. Heuckeroth
  • Articles

  • Article |

    An integrated genomic analysis of 456 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identifies four subtypes defined by transcriptional expression profiles and show that these are associated with distinct histopathological characteristics and differential prognosis.

    • Peter Bailey
    • , David K. Chang
    • , Katia Nones
    • , Amber L. Johns
    • , Ann-Marie Patch
    • , Marie-Claude Gingras
    • , David K. Miller
    • , Angelika N. Christ
    • , Tim J. C. Bruxner
    • , Michael C. Quinn
    • , Craig Nourse
    • , L. Charles Murtaugh
    • , Ivon Harliwong
    • , Senel Idrisoglu
    • , Suzanne Manning
    • , Ehsan Nourbakhsh
    • , Shivangi Wani
    • , Lynn Fink
    • , Oliver Holmes
    • , Venessa Chin
    • , Matthew J. Anderson
    • , Stephen Kazakoff
    • , Conrad Leonard
    • , Felicity Newell
    • , Nick Waddell
    • , Scott Wood
    • , Qinying Xu
    • , Peter J. Wilson
    • , Nicole Cloonan
    • , Karin S. Kassahn
    • , Darrin Taylor
    • , Kelly Quek
    • , Alan Robertson
    • , Lorena Pantano
    • , Laura Mincarelli
    • , Luis N. Sanchez
    • , Lisa Evers
    • , Jianmin Wu
    • , Mark Pinese
    • , Mark J. Cowley
    • , Marc D. Jones
    • , Emily K. Colvin
    • , Adnan M. Nagrial
    • , Emily S. Humphrey
    • , Lorraine A. Chantrill
    • , Amanda Mawson
    • , Jeremy Humphris
    • , Angela Chou
    • , Marina Pajic
    • , Christopher J. Scarlett
    • , Andreia V. Pinho
    • , Marc Giry-Laterriere
    • , Ilse Rooman
    • , Jaswinder S. Samra
    • , James G. Kench
    • , Jessica A. Lovell
    • , Neil D. Merrett
    • , Christopher W. Toon
    • , Krishna Epari
    • , Nam Q. Nguyen
    • , Andrew Barbour
    • , Nikolajs Zeps
    • , Kim Moran-Jones
    • , Nigel B. Jamieson
    • , Janet S. Graham
    • , Fraser Duthie
    • , Karin Oien
    • , Jane Hair
    • , Robert Grützmann
    • , Anirban Maitra
    • , Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue
    • , Christopher L. Wolfgang
    • , Richard A. Morgan
    • , Rita T. Lawlor
    • , Vincenzo Corbo
    • , Claudio Bassi
    • , Borislav Rusev
    • , Paola Capelli
    • , Roberto Salvia
    • , Giampaolo Tortora
    • , Debabrata Mukhopadhyay
    • , Gloria M. Petersen
    • , Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative
    • , Donna M. Munzy
    • , William E. Fisher
    • , Saadia A. Karim
    • , James R. Eshleman
    • , Ralph H. Hruban
    • , Christian Pilarsky
    • , Jennifer P. Morton
    • , Owen J. Sansom
    • , Aldo Scarpa
    • , Elizabeth A. Musgrove
    • , Ulla-Maja Hagbo Bailey
    • , Oliver Hofmann
    • , Robert L. Sutherland
    • , David A. Wheeler
    • , Anthony J. Gill
    • , Richard A. Gibbs
    • , John V. Pearson
    • , Nicola Waddell
    • , Andrew V. Biankin
    •  & Sean M. Grimmond
  • Article |

    A high-fat diet increases the number of intestinal stem cells in mammals, both in vivo and in intestinal organoids; a pathway that involves PPAR-δ confers organoid-initiating capacity to non-stem cells and induces them to form in vivo tumours after loss of the Apc tumour suppressor.

    • Semir Beyaz
    • , Miyeko D. Mana
    • , Jatin Roper
    • , Dmitriy Kedrin
    • , Assieh Saadatpour
    • , Sue-Jean Hong
    • , Khristian E. Bauer-Rowe
    • , Michael E. Xifaras
    • , Adam Akkad
    • , Erika Arias
    • , Luca Pinello
    • , Yarden Katz
    • , Shweta Shinagare
    • , Monther Abu-Remaileh
    • , Maria M. Mihaylova
    • , Dudley W. Lamming
    • , Rizkullah Dogum
    • , Guoji Guo
    • , George W. Bell
    • , Martin Selig
    • , G. Petur Nielsen
    • , Nitin Gupta
    • , Cristina R. Ferrone
    • , Vikram Deshpande
    • , Guo-Cheng Yuan
    • , Stuart H. Orkin
    • , David M. Sabatini
    •  & Ömer H. Yilmaz
  • Article |

    A combination of X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, functional assays and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy shows that a protein of previously unknown function, TssA, forms a dodecameric complex that interacts with components of the tube and sheath of the type VI secretion system of bacteria, and that it primes and coordinates biogenesis of both the tail tube and the sheath.

    • Abdelrahim Zoued
    • , Eric Durand
    • , Yannick R. Brunet
    • , Silvia Spinelli
    • , Badreddine Douzi
    • , Mathilde Guzzo
    • , Nicolas Flaugnatti
    • , Pierre Legrand
    • , Laure Journet
    • , Rémi Fronzes
    • , Tâm Mignot
    • , Christian Cambillau
    •  & Eric Cascales
  • Article |

    Two crystal structures of the Escherichia coli β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM complex) are presented, one of which includes all five subunits (BamA–BamE), in two distinct conformational states; together with functional assays and molecular dynamics stimulations, these structures help to generate a model for outer membrane protein insertion.

    • Yinghong Gu
    • , Huanyu Li
    • , Haohao Dong
    • , Yi Zeng
    • , Zhengyu Zhang
    • , Neil G. Paterson
    • , Phillip J. Stansfeld
    • , Zhongshan Wang
    • , Yizheng Zhang
    • , Wenjian Wang
    •  & Changjiang Dong
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    High-resolution radio measurements of air showers—cascades of secondary particles in the atmosphere initiated by cosmic rays—reveal that cosmic rays with energies of 1017–1017.5 electronvolts have a mixed composition, with light elements (protons and helium nuclei) making up 80 per cent of their mass.

    • S. Buitink
    • , A. Corstanje
    • , H. Falcke
    • , J. R. Hörandel
    • , T. Huege
    • , A. Nelles
    • , J. P. Rachen
    • , L. Rossetto
    • , P. Schellart
    • , O. Scholten
    • , S. ter Veen
    • , S. Thoudam
    • , T. N. G. Trinh
    • , J. Anderson
    • , A. Asgekar
    • , I. M. Avruch
    • , M. E. Bell
    • , M. J. Bentum
    • , G. Bernardi
    • , P. Best
    • , A. Bonafede
    • , F. Breitling
    • , J. W. Broderick
    • , W. N. Brouw
    • , M. Brüggen
    • , H. R. Butcher
    • , D. Carbone
    • , B. Ciardi
    • , J. E. Conway
    • , F. de Gasperin
    • , E. de Geus
    • , A. Deller
    • , R.-J. Dettmar
    • , G. van Diepen
    • , S. Duscha
    • , J. Eislöffel
    • , D. Engels
    • , J. E. Enriquez
    • , R. A. Fallows
    • , R. Fender
    • , C. Ferrari
    • , W. Frieswijk
    • , M. A. Garrett
    • , J. M. Grießmeier
    • , A. W. Gunst
    • , M. P. van Haarlem
    • , T. E. Hassall
    • , G. Heald
    • , J. W. T. Hessels
    • , M. Hoeft
    • , A. Horneffer
    • , M. Iacobelli
    • , H. Intema
    • , E. Juette
    • , A. Karastergiou
    • , V. I. Kondratiev
    • , M. Kramer
    • , M. Kuniyoshi
    • , G. Kuper
    • , J. van Leeuwen
    • , G. M. Loose
    • , P. Maat
    • , G. Mann
    • , S. Markoff
    • , R. McFadden
    • , D. McKay-Bukowski
    • , J. P. McKean
    • , M. Mevius
    • , D. D. Mulcahy
    • , H. Munk
    • , M. J. Norden
    • , E. Orru
    • , H. Paas
    • , M. Pandey-Pommier
    • , V. N. Pandey
    • , M. Pietka
    • , R. Pizzo
    • , A. G. Polatidis
    • , W. Reich
    • , H. J. A. Röttgering
    • , A. M. M. Scaife
    • , D. J. Schwarz
    • , M. Serylak
    • , J. Sluman
    • , O. Smirnov
    • , B. W. Stappers
    • , M. Steinmetz
    • , A. Stewart
    • , J. Swinbank
    • , M. Tagger
    • , Y. Tang
    • , C. Tasse
    • , M. C. Toribio
    • , R. Vermeulen
    • , C. Vocks
    • , C. Vogt
    • , R. J. van Weeren
    • , R. A. M. J. Wijers
    • , S. J. Wijnholds
    • , M. W. Wise
    • , O. Wucknitz
    • , S. Yatawatta
    • , P. Zarka
    •  & J. A. Zensus
  • Letter |

    By coupling donor spins in silicon to a superconducting microwave cavity and tuning the spins to the cavity resonance, the rate of spin relaxation is increased by three orders of magnitude compared to that of detuned spins; in such a regime, spontaneous emission of radiation is the dominant mechanism of spin relaxation.

    • A. Bienfait
    • , J. J. Pla
    • , Y. Kubo
    • , X. Zhou
    • , M. Stern
    • , C. C. Lo
    • , C. D. Weis
    • , T. Schenkel
    • , D. Vion
    • , D. Esteve
    • , J. J. L. Morton
    •  & P. Bertet
  • Letter |

    A surface engineering approach is described that is inspired by the water-condensation capability of the bumps on desert beetles, the droplet transportation facilitated by cactus spines and the slippery coating of the pitcher plant, to produce a structure with many water-harvesting applications.

    • Kyoo-Chul Park
    • , Philseok Kim
    • , Alison Grinthal
    • , Neil He
    • , David Fox
    • , James C. Weaver
    •  & Joanna Aizenberg
  • Letter |

    Hydroxycarbonate minerals such as zincian malachite and aurichalcite are well known precursors to catalysts for methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water–gas shift reactions; here, a supercritical antisolvent method is used to prepare highly stable georgeite—a hydroxycarbonate mineral that has hitherto been ignored because of its rarity, but which is found to be a superior catalyst precursor.

    • Simon A. Kondrat
    • , Paul J. Smith
    • , Peter P. Wells
    • , Philip A. Chater
    • , James H. Carter
    • , David J. Morgan
    • , Elisabetta M. Fiordaliso
    • , Jakob B. Wagner
    • , Thomas E. Davies
    • , Li Lu
    • , Jonathan K. Bartley
    • , Stuart H. Taylor
    • , Michael S. Spencer
    • , Christopher J. Kiely
    • , Gordon J. Kelly
    • , Colin W. Park
    • , Matthew J. Rosseinsky
    •  & Graham J. Hutchings
  • Letter |

    Theory suggests that many chemical reactions (not simply, as is often thought, redox reactions) might be catalysed by an applied electric field; experimental evidence for this is now provided from single-molecule studies of the formation of carbon–carbon bonds in a Diels–Alder reaction.

    • Albert C. Aragonès
    • , Naomi L. Haworth
    • , Nadim Darwish
    • , Simone Ciampi
    • , Nathaniel J. Bloomfield
    • , Gordon G. Wallace
    • , Ismael Diez-Perez
    •  & Michelle L. Coote
  • Letter |

    Residual topography and gravity anomalies reveal a tectonic boundary in northeast Japan, which is proposed to represent the offshore continuation of the Median Tectonic Line; the contrast in frictional properties across this structure may control earthquake behaviour there, as recently demonstrated by the giant 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake.

    • Dan Bassett
    • , David T. Sandwell
    • , Yuri Fialko
    •  & Anthony B. Watts
  • Letter |

    The brain of the hagfish, a cyclostome related to the lamprey, develops domains equivalent to the median ganglionic eminence and the rhombic lip, resembling the brains of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), suggesting that brain regionalization in jawed vertebrates occurred before the divergence of cyclostomes and gnathostomes more than 500 million years ago.

    • Fumiaki Sugahara
    • , Juan Pascual-Anaya
    • , Yasuhiro Oisi
    • , Shigehiro Kuraku
    • , Shin-ichi Aota
    • , Noritaka Adachi
    • , Wataru Takagi
    • , Tamami Hirai
    • , Noboru Sato
    • , Yasunori Murakami
    •  & Shigeru Kuratani
  • Letter |

    A differentiation protocol to obtain enteric nervous system (ENS) progenitors and a range of neurons from human pluripotent stem cells is developed; the cells can migrate and graft to the colon of a chick embryo and an adult mouse colon, including in a mouse model of Hirschsprung disease, in which a functional rescue is observed.

    • Faranak Fattahi
    • , Julius A Steinbeck
    • , Sonja Kriks
    • , Jason Tchieu
    • , Bastian Zimmer
    • , Sarah Kishinevsky
    • , Nadja Zeltner
    • , Yvonne Mica
    • , Wael El-Nachef
    • , Huiyong Zhao
    • , Elisa de Stanchina
    • , Michael D. Gershon
    • , Tracy C. Grikscheit
    • , Shuibing Chen
    •  & Lorenz Studer
  • Letter |

    The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a pre-fusion coronavirus spike trimer from mouse hepatitis virus is presented; the structure reveals architectural similarities to paramyxovirus F proteins, suggesting that these fusion proteins may have evolved from a distant common ancestor.

    • Alexandra C. Walls
    • , M. Alejandra Tortorici
    • , Berend-Jan Bosch
    • , Brandon Frenz
    • , Peter J. M. Rottier
    • , Frank DiMaio
    • , Félix A. Rey
    •  & David Veesler
  • Letter |

    A 4.0 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the pre-fusion form of the trimeric spike from the human coronavirus HKU1 provides insight into how the spike protein mediates host-cell attachment and membrane fusion.

    • Robert N. Kirchdoerfer
    • , Christopher A. Cottrell
    • , Nianshuang Wang
    • , Jesper Pallesen
    • , Hadi M. Yassine
    • , Hannah L. Turner
    • , Kizzmekia S. Corbett
    • , Barney S. Graham
    • , Jason S. McLellan
    •  & Andrew B. Ward
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF2B, providing a structural framework for the eIF2B-mediated mechanism of stress-induced translational control.

    • Kazuhiro Kashiwagi
    • , Mari Takahashi
    • , Madoka Nishimoto
    • , Takuya B. Hiyama
    • , Toshiaki Higo
    • , Takashi Umehara
    • , Kensaku Sakamoto
    • , Takuhiro Ito
    •  & Shigeyuki Yokoyama

Corrections

    Correction

  • Corrigenda

  • Corrigendum |

    • Corine Bertolotto
    • , Fabienne Lesueur
    • , Sandy Giuliano
    • , Thomas Strub
    • , Mahaut de Lichy
    • , Karine Bille
    • , Philippe Dessen
    • , Benoit d’Hayer
    • , Hamida Mohamdi
    • , Audrey Remenieras
    • , Eve Maubec
    • , Arnaud de la Fouchardière
    • , Vincent Molinié
    • , Pierre Vabres
    • , Stéphane Dalle
    • , Nicolas Poulalhon
    • , Tanguy Martin-Denavit
    • , Luc Thomas
    • , Pascale Andry-Benzaquen
    • , Nicolas Dupin
    • , Françoise Boitier
    • , Annick Rossi
    • , Jean-Luc Perrot
    • , Bruno Labeille
    • , Caroline Robert
    • , Bernard Escudier
    • , Olivier Caron
    • , Laurence Brugières
    • , Simon Saule
    • , Betty Gardie
    • , Sophie Gad
    • , Stéphane Richard
    • , Jérôme Couturier
    • , Bin Tean Teh
    • , Paola Ghiorzo
    • , Lorenza Pastorino
    • , Susana Puig
    • , Celia Badenas
    • , Hakan Olsson
    • , Christian Ingvar
    • , Etienne Rouleau
    • , Rosette Lidereau
    • , Philippe Bahadoran
    • , Philippe Vielh
    • , Eve Corda
    • , Hélène Blanché
    • , Diana Zelenika
    • , Pilar Galan
    • , The French Familial Melanoma Study Group
    • , François Aubin
    • , Bertrand Bachollet
    • , Céline Becuwe
    • , Pascaline Berthet
    • , Yves Jean Bignon
    • , Valérie Bonadona
    • , Jean-Louis Bonafe
    • , Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron
    • , Fréderic Cambazard
    • , Jacqueline Chevrant-Breton
    • , Isabelle Coupier
    • , Sophie Dalac
    • , Liliane Demange
    • , Michel d’Incan
    • , Catherine Dugast
    • , Laurence Faivre
    • , Lynda Vincent-Fétita
    • , Marion Gauthier-Villars
    • , Brigitte Gilbert
    • , Florent Grange
    • , Jean-Jacques Grob
    • , Philippe Humbert
    • , Nicolas Janin
    • , Pascal Joly
    • , Delphine Kerob
    • , Christine Lasset
    • , Dominique Leroux
    • , Julien Levang
    • , Jean-Marc Limacher
    • , Cristina Livideanu
    • , Michel Longy
    • , Alain Lortholary
    • , Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet
    • , Sandrine Mansard
    • , Ludovic Mansuy
    • , Karine Marrou
    • , Christine Matéus
    • , Christine Maugard
    • , Nicolas Meyer
    • , Catherine Nogues
    • , Pierre Souteyrand
    • , Laurence Venat-Bouvet
    • , Hélène Zattara
    • , Valérie Chaudru
    • , Gilbert M. Lenoir
    • , Mark Lathrop
    • , Irwin Davidson
    • , Marie-Françoise Avril
    • , Florence Demenais
    • , Robert Ballotti
    •  & Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets
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