Volume 529 Issue 7586, 21 January 2016

A skull from Nataruk, northern Kenya, showing the traumatic lesions that caused this man’s death. Violence and warfare have shaped human societies for many thousands of years, but the origins of inter-group conflict in the archaeological record are controversial, dependent on how such conflicts are defined and recognized, as well as on the lottery of preservation. Marta Mirazón Lahr et al. report fossil finds that point to a case of inter-group violence among hunter-gatherers in the early Holocene. Ten out of twelve skeletons, discovered near what was once a small lagoon, show evidence of having undergone violent deaths. There were no signs of deliberate burial, and several individuals have multiple major traumatic lesions — including an obsidian bladelet embedded in one of the skulls. The authors interpret this assemblage as the aftermath of a violent inter-group encounter that took place some 10,000 years ago on the fertile shores of Lake Turkana. Cover: Marta Mirazón Lahr & Fabio Lahr.

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Sexual harassment is rife in science. Universities must stop trying to save face: they must discipline perpetrators and support victims.

  • Editorial |

    Coastal wetlands can have a crucial role in the fight against climate change.

  • Editorial |

    Strict guidelines to improve the reproducibility of experiments are a welcome move.

World View

Research Highlights

Social Selection

Seven Days

News

News Feature

  • News Feature |

    The feral chickens of Kauai provide a unique opportunity to study what happens when domesticated animals escape and evolve.

    • Ewen Callaway
  • News Feature |

    The United States has invested in a grand ecological observatory, but the project has been dogged by budget overruns and delays.

    • Chris Cesare

Comment

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Fatimah L. C. Jackson weighs up a study on the cultural politics of genetic testing among African Americans.

    • Fatimah L. C. Jackson
  • Books & Arts |

    Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.

    • Barbara Kiser

Correspondence

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Which phylum first branched off from the animal phylogenetic tree is a contested issue. A new analysis challenges the proposal that comb jellies are the sister group to all other animals, and emphasizes a 'sponges-first' view. Three evolutionary biologists weigh up the evidence.

    • Maximilian J. Telford
    • , Leonid L. Moroz
    •  & Kenneth M. Halanych
  • News & Views |

    Magnesium is not usually considered to be a constituent of Earth's core, but its presence there has now been proposed to explain an ongoing enigma — the identity of the energy sources that drive our planet's magnetic field. See Letter p.387

    • Bruce Buffett
  • News & Views |

    Inhibitors of the BET bromodomain proteins are promising cancer therapeutics, but tumour cells are likely to become resistant to these drugs. Anticipated mechanisms of resistance have now been described. See Letter p.413

    • Jeff Settleman
  • News & Views |

    Comprehensive mapping and modelling have estimated global deaths from the bacterial disease melioidosis to be comparable to deaths from measles and substantially greater than those from dengue or leptospirosis.

    • Bart J. Currie
    •  & Mirjam Kaestli
  • News & Views |

    The sequential action of enzymes has been shown to modify members of a class of membrane lipid called phosphoinositides to direct integral membrane proteins for recycling. See Letter p.408

    • Tamas Balla
  • News & Views |

    A systems-level analysis of grasslands across the planet provides stimulating insight into the interlaced pathways that connect species diversity and biological productivity in ecological communities. See Letter p.390

    • Kevin Gross
  • News & Views |

    The charge neutrality of the antimatter atom antihydrogen has been confirmed with unprecedented accuracy, paving the way for experiments that could simultaneously solve several of physics' biggest mysteries. See Letter p.373

    • Thomas J. Phillips

Introduction

Review Article

Article

  • Article |

    Two-photon calcium imaging reveals that the mouse retina contains more than 30 functionally distinct retinal ganglion cells, including some that have not been described before, exceeding current estimates and suggesting that the functional diversity of retinal ganglion cells may be much larger than previously thought.

    • Tom Baden
    • , Philipp Berens
    • , Katrin Franke
    • , Miroslav Román Rosón
    • , Matthias Bethge
    •  & Thomas Euler
  • Article |

    To address the question of whether a recurrent tumour is genetically similar to the tumour at diagnosis, the evolution of medulloblastoma has been studied in both an in vivo mouse model of clinical tumour therapy as well as in humans with recurrent disease; targeted tumour therapies are usually based on targets present in the tumour at diagnosis but the results from this study indicate that post-treatment recurring tumours (compared with the tumour at diagnosis) have undergone substantial clonal divergence of the initial dominant tumour clone.

    • A. Sorana Morrissy
    • , Livia Garzia
    • , David J. H. Shih
    • , Scott Zuyderduyn
    • , Xi Huang
    • , Patryk Skowron
    • , Marc Remke
    • , Florence M. G. Cavalli
    • , Vijay Ramaswamy
    • , Patricia E. Lindsay
    • , Salomeh Jelveh
    • , Laura K. Donovan
    • , Xin Wang
    • , Betty Luu
    • , Kory Zayne
    • , Yisu Li
    • , Chelsea Mayoh
    • , Nina Thiessen
    • , Eloi Mercier
    • , Karen L. Mungall
    • , Yusanne Ma
    • , Kane Tse
    • , Thomas Zeng
    • , Karey Shumansky
    • , Andrew J. L. Roth
    • , Sohrab Shah
    • , Hamza Farooq
    • , Noriyuki Kijima
    • , Borja L. Holgado
    • , John J. Y. Lee
    • , Stuart Matan-Lithwick
    • , Jessica Liu
    • , Stephen C. Mack
    • , Alex Manno
    • , K. A. Michealraj
    • , Carolina Nor
    • , John Peacock
    • , Lei Qin
    • , Juri Reimand
    • , Adi Rolider
    • , Yuan Y. Thompson
    • , Xiaochong Wu
    • , Trevor Pugh
    • , Adrian Ally
    • , Mikhail Bilenky
    • , Yaron S. N. Butterfield
    • , Rebecca Carlsen
    • , Young Cheng
    • , Eric Chuah
    • , Richard D. Corbett
    • , Noreen Dhalla
    • , An He
    • , Darlene Lee
    • , Haiyan I. Li
    • , William Long
    • , Michael Mayo
    • , Patrick Plettner
    • , Jenny Q. Qian
    • , Jacqueline E. Schein
    • , Angela Tam
    • , Tina Wong
    • , Inanc Birol
    • , Yongjun Zhao
    • , Claudia C. Faria
    • , José Pimentel
    • , Sofia Nunes
    • , Tarek Shalaby
    • , Michael Grotzer
    • , Ian F. Pollack
    • , Ronald L. Hamilton
    • , Xiao-Nan Li
    • , Anne E. Bendel
    • , Daniel W. Fults
    • , Andrew W. Walter
    • , Toshihiro Kumabe
    • , Teiji Tominaga
    • , V. Peter Collins
    • , Yoon-Jae Cho
    • , Caitlin Hoffman
    • , David Lyden
    • , Jeffrey H. Wisoff
    • , James H. Garvin
    • , Duncan S. Stearns
    • , Luca Massimi
    • , Ulrich Schüller
    • , Jaroslav Sterba
    • , Karel Zitterbart
    • , Stephanie Puget
    • , Olivier Ayrault
    • , Sandra E. Dunn
    • , Daniela P. C. Tirapelli
    • , Carlos G. Carlotti
    • , Helen Wheeler
    • , Andrew R. Hallahan
    • , Wendy Ingram
    • , Tobey J. MacDonald
    • , Jeffrey J. Olson
    • , Erwin G. Van Meir
    • , Ji-Yeoun Lee
    • , Kyu-Chang Wang
    • , Seung-Ki Kim
    • , Byung-Kyu Cho
    • , Torsten Pietsch
    • , Gudrun Fleischhack
    • , Stephan Tippelt
    • , Young Shin Ra
    • , Simon Bailey
    • , Janet C. Lindsey
    • , Steven C. Clifford
    • , Charles G. Eberhart
    • , Michael K. Cooper
    • , Roger J. Packer
    • , Maura Massimino
    • , Maria Luisa Garre
    • , Ute Bartels
    • , Uri Tabori
    • , Cynthia E. Hawkins
    • , Peter Dirks
    • , Eric Bouffet
    • , James T. Rutka
    • , Robert J. Wechsler-Reya
    • , William A. Weiss
    • , Lara S. Collier
    • , Adam J. Dupuy
    • , Andrey Korshunov
    • , David T. W. Jones
    • , Marcel Kool
    • , Paul A. Northcott
    • , Stefan M. Pfister
    • , David A. Largaespada
    • , Andrew J. Mungall
    • , Richard A. Moore
    • , Nada Jabado
    • , Gary D. Bader
    • , Steven J. M. Jones
    • , David Malkin
    • , Marco A. Marra
    •  & Michael D. Taylor

    Collection:

  • Article |

    In-depth analyses of protein expression studies are used to derive a new codon-influence metric that correlates with global protein levels, mRNA levels and mRNA lifetimes in vivo, indicating tight coupling between translation efficiency and mRNA stability; genes redesigned based on these analyses consistently yield high protein expression levels both in vivo and in vitro.

    • Grégory Boël
    • , Reka Letso
    • , Helen Neely
    • , W. Nicholson Price
    • , Kam-Ho Wong
    • , Min Su
    • , Jon D. Luff
    • , Mayank Valecha
    • , John K. Everett
    • , Thomas B. Acton
    • , Rong Xiao
    • , Gaetano T. Montelione
    • , Daniel P. Aalberts
    •  & John F. Hunt

Letter

  • Letter |

    Suppression of dipolar oscillation modes by strong magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass red giant stars reveals that powerful magnetic dynamos were very common in the previously convective cores of these stars.

    • Dennis Stello
    • , Matteo Cantiello
    • , Jim Fuller
    • , Daniel Huber
    • , Rafael A. García
    • , Timothy R. Bedding
    • , Lars Bildsten
    •  & Victor Silva Aguirre
  • Letter |

    Using infrared wavelengths, micrometre-sized water-ice grains have been identified on the nucleus (which is mostly coated in a dark material) of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.

    • G. Filacchione
    • , M. C. De Sanctis
    • , F. Capaccioni
    • , A. Raponi
    • , F. Tosi
    • , M. Ciarniello
    • , P. Cerroni
    • , G. Piccioni
    • , M. T. Capria
    • , E. Palomba
    • , G. Bellucci
    • , S. Erard
    • , D. Bockelee-Morvan
    • , C. Leyrat
    • , G. Arnold
    • , M. A. Barucci
    • , M. Fulchignoni
    • , B. Schmitt
    • , E. Quirico
    • , R. Jaumann
    • , K. Stephan
    • , A. Longobardo
    • , V. Mennella
    • , A. Migliorini
    • , E. Ammannito
    • , J. Benkhoff
    • , J. P. Bibring
    • , A. Blanco
    • , M. I. Blecka
    • , R. Carlson
    • , U. Carsenty
    • , L. Colangeli
    • , M. Combes
    • , M. Combi
    • , J. Crovisier
    • , P. Drossart
    • , T. Encrenaz
    • , C. Federico
    • , U. Fink
    • , S. Fonti
    • , W. H. Ip
    • , P. Irwin
    • , E. Kuehrt
    • , Y. Langevin
    • , G. Magni
    • , T. McCord
    • , L. Moroz
    • , S. Mottola
    • , V. Orofino
    • , U. Schade
    • , F. Taylor
    • , D. Tiphene
    • , G. P. Tozzi
    • , P. Beck
    • , N. Biver
    • , L. Bonal
    • , J-Ph. Combe
    • , D. Despan
    • , E. Flamini
    • , M. Formisano
    • , S. Fornasier
    • , A. Frigeri
    • , D. Grassi
    • , M. S. Gudipati
    • , D. Kappel
    • , F. Mancarella
    • , K. Markus
    • , F. Merlin
    • , R. Orosei
    • , G. Rinaldi
    • , M. Cartacci
    • , A. Cicchetti
    • , S. Giuppi
    • , Y. Hello
    • , F. Henry
    • , S. Jacquinod
    • , J. M. Reess
    • , R. Noschese
    • , R. Politi
    •  & G. Peter
  • Letter | | Open Access

    Stochastic acceleration applied to 1,000 trapped antihydrogen atoms yields a 20-fold reduction of the experimental upper bound on the magnitude of the charge of antihydrogen, which is expected to be charge neutral.

    • M. Ahmadi
    • , M. Baquero-Ruiz
    • , W. Bertsche
    • , E. Butler
    • , A. Capra
    • , C. Carruth
    • , C. L. Cesar
    • , M. Charlton
    • , A. E. Charman
    • , S. Eriksson
    • , L. T. Evans
    • , N. Evetts
    • , J. Fajans
    • , T. Friesen
    • , M. C. Fujiwara
    • , D. R. Gill
    • , A. Gutierrez
    • , J. S. Hangst
    • , W. N. Hardy
    • , M. E. Hayden
    • , C. A. Isaac
    • , A. Ishida
    • , S. A. Jones
    • , S. Jonsell
    • , L. Kurchaninov
    • , N. Madsen
    • , D. Maxwell
    • , J. T. K. McKenna
    • , S. Menary
    • , J. M. Michan
    • , T. Momose
    • , J. J. Munich
    • , P. Nolan
    • , K. Olchanski
    • , A. Olin
    • , A. Povilus
    • , P. Pusa
    • , C. Ø. Rasmussen
    • , F. Robicheaux
    • , R. L. Sacramento
    • , M. Sameed
    • , E. Sarid
    • , D. M. Silveira
    • , C. So
    • , T. D. Tharp
    • , R. I. Thompson
    • , D. P. van der Werf
    • , J. S. Wurtele
    •  & A. I. Zhmoginov
  • Letter |

    Lithium–oxygen batteries allow oxygen to be reduced at the battery’s cathode when a current is drawn; in present-day batteries, this results in formation of Li2O2, but it is now shown that another high energy density material, namely LiO2, with better electronic conduction can be used instead as the discharge product, if the electrode is decorated with iridium nanoparticles.

    • Jun Lu
    • , Yun Jung Lee
    • , Xiangyi Luo
    • , Kah Chun Lau
    • , Mohammad Asadi
    • , Hsien-Hau Wang
    • , Scott Brombosz
    • , Jianguo Wen
    • , Dengyun Zhai
    • , Zonghai Chen
    • , Dean J. Miller
    • , Yo Sub Jeong
    • , Jin-Bum Park
    • , Zhigang Zak Fang
    • , Bijandra Kumar
    • , Amin Salehi-Khojin
    • , Yang-Kook Sun
    • , Larry A. Curtiss
    •  & Khalil Amine
  • Letter |

    The thermal conductivity of iron is now known to be much larger than had been thought, implying that thermal convection and radiogenic heating would not have been enough to sustain the Earth’s geodynamo; here it is shown that the precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals from the core could have served as the required power source.

    • Joseph G. O’Rourke
    •  & David J. Stevenson
  • Letter |

    Data from grasslands across five continents show clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking ecosystem productivity and species richness.

    • James B. Grace
    • , T. Michael Anderson
    • , Eric W. Seabloom
    • , Elizabeth T. Borer
    • , Peter B. Adler
    • , W. Stanley Harpole
    • , Yann Hautier
    • , Helmut Hillebrand
    • , Eric M. Lind
    • , Meelis Pärtel
    • , Jonathan D. Bakker
    • , Yvonne M. Buckley
    • , Michael J. Crawley
    • , Ellen I. Damschen
    • , Kendi F. Davies
    • , Philip A. Fay
    • , Jennifer Firn
    • , Daniel S. Gruner
    • , Andy Hector
    • , Johannes M. H. Knops
    • , Andrew S. MacDougall
    • , Brett A. Melbourne
    • , John W. Morgan
    • , John L. Orrock
    • , Suzanne M. Prober
    •  & Melinda D. Smith
  • Letter |

    A case of inter-group violence among hunter-gatherers on the shores of Lake Turkana in Kenya 10,000 years ago.

    • M. Mirazón Lahr
    • , F. Rivera
    • , R. K. Power
    • , A. Mounier
    • , B. Copsey
    • , F. Crivellaro
    • , J. E. Edung
    • , J. M. Maillo Fernandez
    • , C. Kiarie
    • , J. Lawrence
    • , A. Leakey
    • , E. Mbua
    • , H. Miller
    • , A. Muigai
    • , D. M. Mukhongo
    • , A. Van Baelen
    • , R. Wood
    • , J.-L. Schwenninger
    • , R. Grün
    • , H. Achyuthan
    • , A. Wilshaw
    •  & R. A. Foley
  • Letter |

    WebMotor neurons in zebrafish are shown to be more than simply output neurons, since they are able to influence, through gap junctions, the strength of the input they receive from V2a interneurons and, thereby, the frequency and duration of locomotor activity.

    • Jianren Song
    • , Konstantinos Ampatzis
    • , E. Rebecka Björnfors
    •  & Abdeljabbar El Manira
  • Letter |

    In mouse embryonic stem cells converted to an epiblast fate in vitro—a state in which the cells can also gain germ cell fate if exposed to the signalling molecule BMP4—the sole expression of the transcription factor NANOG is shown to be sufficient to induce germ cell fate, in the absence of BMP4.

    • Kazuhiro Murakami
    • , Ufuk Günesdogan
    • , Jan J. Zylicz
    • , Walfred W. C. Tang
    • , Roopsha Sengupta
    • , Toshihiro Kobayashi
    • , Shinseog Kim
    • , Richard Butler
    • , Sabine Dietmann
    •  & M. Azim Surani
  • Letter |

    A mechanism for phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes to enable exit from the endosomal system, suggesting that defective phosphoinositide conversion at endosomes underlies X-linked centronuclear myopathy.

    • Katharina Ketel
    • , Michael Krauss
    • , Anne-Sophie Nicot
    • , Dmytro Puchkov
    • , Marnix Wieffer
    • , Rainer Müller
    • , Devaraj Subramanian
    • , Carsten Schultz
    • , Jocelyn Laporte
    •  & Volker Haucke
  • Letter |

    BET inhibitors that target bromodomain chromatin readers such as BRD4 are being explored as potential therapeutics in cancer; here triple-negative breast cancer cell lines are shown to respond to BET inhibitors and resistance seems to be associated with transcriptional changes rather than drug efflux and mutations, opening potential avenues to improve clinical responses to BET inhibitors.

    • Shaokun Shu
    • , Charles Y. Lin
    • , Housheng Hansen He
    • , Robert M. Witwicki
    • , Doris P. Tabassum
    • , Justin M. Roberts
    • , Michalina Janiszewska
    • , Sung Jin Huh
    • , Yi Liang
    • , Jeremy Ryan
    • , Ernest Doherty
    • , Hisham Mohammed
    • , Hao Guo
    • , Daniel G. Stover
    • , Muhammad B. Ekram
    • , Guillermo Peluffo
    • , Jonathan Brown
    • , Clive D’Santos
    • , Ian E. Krop
    • , Deborah Dillon
    • , Michael McKeown
    • , Christopher Ott
    • , Jun Qi
    • , Min Ni
    • , Prakash K. Rao
    • , Melissa Duarte
    • , Shwu-Yuan Wu
    • , Cheng-Ming Chiang
    • , Lars Anders
    • , Richard A. Young
    • , Eric P. Winer
    • , Antony Letai
    • , William T. Barry
    • , Jason S. Carroll
    • , Henry W. Long
    • , Myles Brown
    • , X. Shirley Liu
    • , Clifford A. Meyer
    • , James E. Bradner
    •  & Kornelia Polyak
  • Letter |

    Using super-resolution imaging to directly observe the three-dimensional organization of Drosophila chromatin at a scale spanning sizes from individual genes to entire gene regulatory domains, the authors find that transcriptionally active, inactive and Polycomb-repressed chromatin states each have a distinct spatial organisation.

    • Alistair N. Boettiger
    • , Bogdan Bintu
    • , Jeffrey R. Moffitt
    • , Siyuan Wang
    • , Brian J. Beliveau
    • , Geoffrey Fudenberg
    • , Maxim Imakaev
    • , Leonid A. Mirny
    • , Chao-ting Wu
    •  & Xiaowei Zhuang

    Collection:

Technology Feature

Column

  • Column |

    Consensus with co-authors is vital when writing up research, say Dmitry Budker and Derek Jackson Kimball.

    • Dmitry Budker
    •  & Derek Jackson Kimball
  • Column |

    Writing together bridges disciplines, says Eli Lazarus.

    • Eli Lazarus

Q&A

Futures

Brief Communications Arising

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