Volume 522 Issue 7556, 18 June 2015

Volume 522 Issue 7556

Chilesaurus diegosuarezi, seen in a reconstruction by Gabriel Lio eating plant foliage in an extinct Patagonian forest. This newly discovered dinosaur species from the Aysén fossil locality in southern Chile has been characterized as a primitive theropod from the Late Jurassic (about 150 million years ago). Theropods, a group that includes Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, were generally bipedal and apart from some later highly derived forms, were almost always carnivores. The new species is a relatively early offshoot in theropod evolution but was a herbivore, combining an unprecedented combination of characters and a bizarre anatomy not recorded before among dinosaurs. The discovery illustrates how little we still know about even the broad strokes of dinosaur evolution. Cover: Gabriel Lio

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

    Naturejobs

  • Column |

    A bit of self-reflection can propel scientists into a career beyond the lab, says Christopher Taylor.

    • Christopher Taylor
  • Futures

  • Futures |

    Comfort comes.

    • Tim Cassford

Specials

    Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    The body's organs are more complex than any factory. Attempts to mirror their physiology in the laboratory are getting closer to capturing their intricacies.

    • Vivien Marx

    Collection:

  • Outlook

  • Outlook |

    The Index's leading countries and institutions for high-quality science, ordered by weighted fractional count (WFC) for 2014. Also shown are the total number of articles, and the change in WFC from 2013. Articles are from the 68 natural science journals that comprise the Nature Index (see Guide to the Nature Index, page S30).

  • Nature Index

  • Nature Index |

    Three regions — North America, North & West Europe, and East & Southeast Asia — produced 91% of the overall 2014 output (WFC) in the Nature Index.

  • Nature Index |

    This region includes lots of strong institutions — from government agencies to universities — but curtailed funding raises concerns for the future.

  • Nature Index |

    Strong spending and recruitment keep countries in this region near the top of the world's output in the Index, and scientists from universities collaborate more with their neighbours.

  • Nature Index |

    While remaining strong in chemistry and physical sciences, buoyed by China's growing contribution, the region embarks on collaborations that could extend its reach.

  • Nature Index |

    Social change and economic stagnation create challenges for this region's biggest countries, but some of the smaller ones are shining.

  • Nature Index |

    Research is dominated by heavyweights Australia and New Zealand but shifts in science policy on both sides of the Tasman Sea are creating uncertainty about the future.

  • Nature Index |

    International projects — including an advanced particle accelerator and educational facilities — bolster this region's focus on chemistry and physical sciences.

  • Nature Index |

    India's dominance continues in this region, but its future funding is tenuous, while neighbouring smaller countries face more fundamental obstacles to scientific success.

  • Nature Index |

    There is scope for improvement with the volume and quality of research in this region, but some innovative programmes for study abroad might improve future publications.

  • Nature Index |

    Public health demands might drive advances in research, but scientists, working against the odds, must also strive to publish in global journals.

  • Nature Index |

    A description of the terminology and methodology used in this supplement, and a guide to the functionality available free online at natureindex.com.

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Analysis of Kepler data has yielded the smallest known mass for an exoplanet orbiting a normal star. Its mass and size are similar to those of Mars, setting a benchmark for the properties of exoplanets smaller than Earth. See Letter p.321

    • Gregory Laughlin
  • News & Views |

    Two studies show that the engulfment of certain intracellular membranous structures by vesicles called autophagosomes regulates the structures' degradation in a selective, receptor-protein-mediated manner. See Letters p.354 & p.359

    • David C. Rubinsztein
  • News & Views |

    Simulations reveal that microwaves propagating through a waveguide can travel around sharp bends in the device without being reflected. The finding might open the way to technologies that exploit this uncommon phenomenon.

    • Sunil Mittal
    •  & Mohammad Hafezi
  • News & Views |

    Stimulating neurons in the brain's hippocampus that are normally activated by pleasurable experiences protects mice from the depressive consequences of stress. See Letter p.335

    • Alex Dranovsky
    •  & E. David Leonardo
  • News & Views |

    The finding that feedbacks between the ocean's carbon cycle and climate may become larger than terrestrial carbon–climate feedbacks has implications for the socio-economic effects of today's fossil-fuel emissions.

    • Fortunat Joos
  • News & Views |

    Aggregates of α-synuclein protein can form in various cell types and cause different neurodegenerative disorders. The existence of strains with distinct structural conformations might explain this variability. See Letter p.340

    • Seung-Jae Lee
    •  & Eliezer Masliah
  • News & Views |

    Boron's unusual properties inspired big advances in chemistry. A compound in which boron binds two carbon monoxide molecules reveals another oddity — the element forms bonds similar to those of transition metals. See Letter p.327

    • Gernot Frenking
  • Review

  • Review Article |

    A review of western boundary currents in the Pacific Ocean explores their far-reaching influence on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Indonesian Throughflow, Asian monsoons, and ocean circulation in the South China Sea, and concludes that major conceptual and technical progress will be needed to close the regional mass budget and provide robust projections of Pacific western boundary currents in a changing climate.

    • Dunxin Hu
    • , Lixin Wu
    • , Wenju Cai
    • , Alex Sen Gupta
    • , Alexandre Ganachaud
    • , Bo Qiu
    • , Arnold L. Gordon
    • , Xiaopei Lin
    • , Zhaohui Chen
    • , Shijian Hu
    • , Guojian Wang
    • , Qingye Wang
    • , Janet Sprintall
    • , Tangdong Qu
    • , Yuji Kashino
    • , Fan Wang
    •  & William S. Kessler
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Spatial working memory is known to involve the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, but the specificities of the connection have been unclear; now, a direct path between these two areas is defined that is necessary for the encoding of spatial cues in mice, but is not required for the maintenance or retrieval of these cues.

    • Timothy Spellman
    • , Mattia Rigotti
    • , Susanne E. Ahmari
    • , Stefano Fusi
    • , Joseph A. Gogos
    •  & Joshua A. Gordon
  • Article |

    The description of a compound (DDD107498) with antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of Plasmodium falciparum and good pharmacokinetic and safety properties, with potential for single-dose treatment, chemoprotection and prevention of transmission.

    • Beatriz Baragaña
    • , Irene Hallyburton
    • , Marcus C. S. Lee
    • , Neil R. Norcross
    • , Raffaella Grimaldi
    • , Thomas D. Otto
    • , William R. Proto
    • , Andrew M. Blagborough
    • , Stephan Meister
    • , Grennady Wirjanata
    • , Andrea Ruecker
    • , Leanna M. Upton
    • , Tara S. Abraham
    • , Mariana J. Almeida
    • , Anupam Pradhan
    • , Achim Porzelle
    • , María Santos Martínez
    • , Judith M. Bolscher
    • , Andrew Woodland
    • , Torsten Luksch
    • , Suzanne Norval
    • , Fabio Zuccotto
    • , John Thomas
    • , Frederick Simeons
    • , Laste Stojanovski
    • , Maria Osuna-Cabello
    • , Paddy M. Brock
    • , Tom S. Churcher
    • , Katarzyna A. Sala
    • , Sara E. Zakutansky
    • , María Belén Jiménez-Díaz
    • , Laura Maria Sanz
    • , Jennifer Riley
    • , Rajshekhar Basak
    • , Michael Campbell
    • , Vicky M. Avery
    • , Robert W. Sauerwein
    • , Koen J. Dechering
    • , Rintis Noviyanti
    • , Brice Campo
    • , Julie A. Frearson
    • , Iñigo Angulo-Barturen
    • , Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga
    • , Francisco Javier Gamo
    • , Paul G. Wyatt
    • , Didier Leroy
    • , Peter Siegl
    • , Michael J. Delves
    • , Dennis E. Kyle
    • , Sergio Wittlin
    • , Jutta Marfurt
    • , Ric N. Price
    • , Robert E. Sinden
    • , Elizabeth A. Winzeler
    • , Susan A. Charman
    • , Lidiya Bebrevska
    • , David W. Gray
    • , Simon Campbell
    • , Alan H. Fairlamb
    • , Paul A. Willis
    • , Julian C. Rayner
    • , David A. Fidock
    • , Kevin D. Read
    •  & Ian H. Gilbert
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Observations are reported of a permanent, asymmetric dust cloud around the Moon, caused by impacts of high-speed cometary dust particles on eccentric orbits, as opposed to particles of asteroidal origin following near-circular paths striking the Moon at lower speeds.

    • M. Horányi
    • , J. R. Szalay
    • , S. Kempf
    • , J. Schmidt
    • , E. Grün
    • , R. Srama
    •  & Z. Sternovsky
  • Letter |

    Transition metal–ligand fragments are often able to bind and release several carbon monoxide molecules, such as the catalysts used in industrial-scale acetic acid synthesis and the active sites of hydrogenase enzymes, but main-group elements have never shown an ability to bind more than one carbon monoxide molecule; here a boron-based compound stable to moisture and air is synthesized and shown to contain multiple carbon monoxide units bound to the central boron atom.

    • Holger Braunschweig
    • , Rian D. Dewhurst
    • , Florian Hupp
    • , Marco Nutz
    • , Krzysztof Radacki
    • , Christopher W. Tate
    • , Alfredo Vargas
    •  & Qing Ye
  • Letter |

    A new dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Chile (about 150 million years ago) has been discovered and identified as a primitive kind of theropod that, unusually, was herbivore.

    • Fernando E. Novas
    • , Leonardo Salgado
    • , Manuel Suárez
    • , Federico L. Agnolín
    • , Martín D. Ezcurra
    • , Nicolás R. Chimento
    • , Rita de la Cruz
    • , Marcelo P. Isasi
    • , Alexander O. Vargas
    •  & David Rubilar-Rogers
  • Letter |

    Acute re-activation of a positive memory engram suppresses depression-like behaviour in mice exposed to chronic stress, mediated by a hippocampus–amygdala–nucleus-accumbens pathway.

    • Steve Ramirez
    • , Xu Liu
    • , Christopher J. MacDonald
    • , Anthony Moffa
    • , Joanne Zhou
    • , Roger L. Redondo
    •  & Susumu Tonegawa
  • Letter |

    Brain α-synuclein deposits are the hallmark of various distinct neurodegenerative diseases, and it is proposed that α-synuclein assemblies with different structural characteristics or 'strains' (ribbons or fibrils) could account for pathological differences between these diseases; here different human α-synuclein strains are injected into rat brain, and are shown to propagate in a strain-dependent manner and cause different pathological and neurotoxic phenotypes.

    • W. Peelaerts
    • , L. Bousset
    • , A. Van der Perren
    • , A. Moskalyuk
    • , R. Pulizzi
    • , M. Giugliano
    • , C. Van den Haute
    • , R. Melki
    •  & V. Baekelandt

    Nature Outlook:

  • Letter |

    Tumours maximize their chance of metastasizing by evoking a systemic inflammatory cascade in mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis.

    • Seth B. Coffelt
    • , Kelly Kersten
    • , Chris W. Doornebal
    • , Jorieke Weiden
    • , Kim Vrijland
    • , Cheei-Sing Hau
    • , Niels J. M. Verstegen
    • , Metamia Ciampricotti
    • , Lukas J. A. C. Hawinkels
    • , Jos Jonkers
    •  & Karin E. de Visser
  • Letter |

    Whether neutrophils exert an anti- or pro-tumorigenic function has remained controversial; now, expression of the receptor molecule MET in neutrophils is shown to be required for their ability to restrict tumour growth in several mouse cancer models, with potential implications for human cancer therapy.

    • Veronica Finisguerra
    • , Giusy Di Conza
    • , Mario Di Matteo
    • , Jens Serneels
    • , Sandra Costa
    • , A. A. Roger Thompson
    • , Els Wauters
    • , Sarah Walmsley
    • , Hans Prenen
    • , Zvi Granot
    • , Andrea Casazza
    •  & Massimiliano Mazzone
  • Letter |

    The protein FAM134B is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor that facilitates ER autophagy, and downregulation of this protein (mutations of which are also known to cause sensory neuropathy in humans) results in expanded ER structures and degeneration of mouse sensory neurons.

    • Aliaksandr Khaminets
    • , Theresa Heinrich
    • , Muriel Mari
    • , Paolo Grumati
    • , Antje K. Huebner
    • , Masato Akutsu
    • , Lutz Liebmann
    • , Alexandra Stolz
    • , Sandor Nietzsche
    • , Nicole Koch
    • , Mario Mauthe
    • , Istvan Katona
    • , Britta Qualmann
    • , Joachim Weis
    • , Fulvio Reggiori
    • , Ingo Kurth
    • , Christian A. Hübner
    •  & Ivan Dikic
  • Letter |

    In yeast, the novel protein Atg40 is enriched in the cortical and cytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and loads these ER subdomains into autophagosomes to facilitate ER autophagy; Atg39 localizes to the perinuclear ER and induces autophagic sequestration of part of the nucleus, thus ensuring cell survival under nitrogen-deprived conditions.

    • Keisuke Mochida
    • , Yu Oikawa
    • , Yayoi Kimura
    • , Hiromi Kirisako
    • , Hisashi Hirano
    • , Yoshinori Ohsumi
    •  & Hitoshi Nakatogawa
  • Letter |

    Many human genes undergo alternative cleavage and polyadenylation to generate messenger RNA transcripts with different lengths at the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) but that encode the same protein; now it is shown that these alternative 3' UTRs regulate protein localization.

    • Binyamin D. Berkovits
    •  & Christine Mayr
  • Letter |

    A hybrid solid–liquid phase transcription method and automated robotic platform synthesizes position-specific, fluorescence- or isotope-labelled RNA.

    • Yu Liu
    • , Erik Holmstrom
    • , Jinwei Zhang
    • , Ping Yu
    • , Jinbu Wang
    • , Marzena A. Dyba
    • , De Chen
    • , Jinfa Ying
    • , Stephen Lockett
    • , David J. Nesbitt
    • , Adrian R. Ferré-D’Amaré
    • , Rui Sousa
    • , Jason R. Stagno
    •  & Yun-Xing Wang

Corrections

Insight

  • Insight |

    Nature Index 2015 Global

    The latest Nature Index supplement shows a continuing surge from China, whose contribution to the Index leapt 16% from the previous year. Analysis of the Index, combined with reportage of developments in policy and funding, shows who’s up and who’s on the cusp — as well as the patterns of collaboration within and across nine global regions.

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