Volume 506 Issue 7489, 27 February 2014

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    Our obligation to keep the suffering of laboratory animals to a minimum — both in life and in death — does not apply only to mammals.

  • Editorial |

    A collaborative online mathematics project holds lessons for other disciplines.

  • Editorial |

    Putting a private craft into space requires vision, hard work and a big dose of optimism.

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    The week in science: US bolsters patent system; $25-billion pharma deal the biggest in 5 years; and Europe picks exoplanet-hunting mission for 2024 launch.

News

Correction

News Feature

  • News Feature |

    Researchers are finding that online, crowd-sourced collaboration can speed up their work — if they choose the right problem.

    • Philip Ball
  • News Feature |

    A powerful method for deducing microbial relationships has been edging its way into civil and criminal investigations. But courts should proceed with caution.

    • Shaoni Bhattacharya

Comment

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Sharon Lewin welcomes a book tracing how two men with HIV were functionally cured.

    • Sharon Lewin
  • Books & Arts |

    Jay M. Pasachoff and Naomi Pasachoff appraise Alexander Borodin's solar-inspired opera.

    • Jay M. Pasachoff
    •  & Naomi Pasachoff
  • Books & Arts |

    London-based music psychologist John Sloboda explores the subconscious connections and disjunctions between musicians and their audiences. He discusses his experiments on the 'emotional hotspots' experienced by listeners and the surprising power of improvisation.

    • Jascha Hoffman

Correspondence

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    In a study that showcases the potential of semisynthetic drug design, structural modification of an existing antibiotic with little activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has generated a new class of effective antitubercular lead.

    • Clifton E. Barry
  • News & Views |

    Might it be possible to create mirrors for space telescopes, using nothing but microscopic particles held in place by light? A study that exploits a technique called optical binding provides a step towards this goal.

    • David McGloin
  • News & Views |

    • Andrew Mitchinson
  • News & Views |

    How tiny aerosol particles form and grow from vapours produced by vegetation has been a mystery. The finding that highly oxygenated products form directly from volatile organic compounds may offer the solution. See Letter p.476

    • Gordon McFiggans
  • News & Views |

    A new value for the atomic mass of the electron is a link in a chain of measurements that will enable a test of the standard model of particle physics with better than part-per-trillion precision. See Letter p.467

    • Edmund G. Myers
  • News & Views |

    A common variant of the autophagy protein ATG16L1 is a risk factor for Crohn's disease. But the genetic alteration is revealed only when the protein is cleaved by the enzyme caspase 3 during cellular stress. See Article p.456

    • Arthur Kaser
    •  & Richard S. Blumberg
  • News & Views |

    Analyses of ependymoma brain tumours reveal a gene rearrangement in one subtype, but no DNA mutations in two others, suggesting that mechanisms for cancer initiation are broader than is typically thought. See Articles p.445 & p.451

    • Rogier Versteeg

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    Peptidoglycan is an essential structural component of the cell wall in the majority of bacteria, but the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis was thought to be one of the few exceptions; here a click chemistry approach is used to label peptidoglycan in replicating C. trachomatis with novel d-amino acid dipeptide probes.

    • G. W. Liechti
    • , E. Kuru
    • , E. Hall
    • , A. Kalinda
    • , Y. V. Brun
    • , M. VanNieuwenhze
    •  & A. T. Maurelli
  • Letter |

    Dark melanin pigment was detected in the fossilized skin of three distantly related marine reptiles (a leatherback turtle, mosasaur and ichthyosaur); benefits of thermoregulation and/or crypsis may have contributed to this melanisation, which therefore has implications for our understanding of how these animals may have lived.

    • Johan Lindgren
    • , Peter Sjövall
    • , Ryan M. Carney
    • , Per Uvdal
    • , Johan A. Gren
    • , Gareth Dyke
    • , Bo Pagh Schultz
    • , Matthew D. Shawkey
    • , Kenneth R. Barnes
    •  & Michael J. Polcyn
  • Letter |

    Tissue-resident macrophages are shown to stop lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by spreading an anti-inflammatory calcium signal to alveolar epithelial cells through connexin-43-positive gap junction channels.

    • Kristin Westphalen
    • , Galina A. Gusarova
    • , Mohammad N. Islam
    • , Manikandan Subramanian
    • , Taylor S. Cohen
    • , Alice S. Prince
    •  & Jahar Bhattacharya
  • Letter |

    A study investigating the mechanisms underlying lateral inhibition and lineage plasticity in the mouse small intestine crypts in vivo finds that crypt cells maintain a permissive chromatin state upon which a transcription factor acts to determine lineage specification, and this is the basis of lateral inhibition.

    • Tae-Hee Kim
    • , Fugen Li
    • , Isabel Ferreiro-Neira
    • , Li-Lun Ho
    • , Annouck Luyten
    • , Kodandaramireddy Nalapareddy
    • , Henry Long
    • , Michael Verzi
    •  & Ramesh A. Shivdasani
  • Letter |

    A genetic locus from the gut symbiont Bacteroides ovatus is identified and described that encodes a cohort of enzymes and carbohydrate-binding proteins necessary for the metabolism of xyloglucans—a predominant component of dietary fibre.

    • Johan Larsbrink
    • , Theresa E. Rogers
    • , Glyn R. Hemsworth
    • , Lauren S. McKee
    • , Alexandra S. Tauzin
    • , Oliver Spadiut
    • , Stefan Klinter
    • , Nicholas A. Pudlo
    • , Karthik Urs
    • , Nicole M. Koropatkin
    • , A. Louise Creagh
    • , Charles A. Haynes
    • , Amelia G. Kelly
    • , Stefan Nilsson Cederholm
    • , Gideon J. Davies
    • , Eric C. Martens
    •  & Harry Brumer
  • Letter |

    The optical spectrum of the star SMSS J031300.36−670839.3 shows no evidence of iron; this, together with comparisons of the star’s observed element abundance pattern with those of models, means that SMSS J031300.36−670839.3 must have been seeded with material from a single supernova with an original mass about 60 times that of the Sun.

    • S. C. Keller
    • , M. S. Bessell
    • , A. Frebel
    • , A. R. Casey
    • , M. Asplund
    • , H. R. Jacobson
    • , K. Lind
    • , J. E. Norris
    • , D. Yong
    • , A. Heger
    • , Z. Magic
    • , G. S. Da Costa
    • , B. P. Schmidt
    •  & P. Tisserand
  • Letter |

    We lack thermal histories for magma reservoirs, but here the magma under Mount Hood (Oregon, USA) is shown to have been too cold to mobilize for most of the time it has been stored, which implies that magma mobilizes (at which point it can be imaged geophysically) very quickly prior to eruption.

    • Kari M. Cooper
    •  & Adam J. R. Kent
  • Letter |

    Fast optical pulses create a plasma of electrons and holes in a semiconductor in which excitons (pairs of holes and electrons) and combinations of two excitons emerge; now a stable liquid-like droplet of electrons and holes has been detected and called a ‘dropleton’.

    • A. E. Almand-Hunter
    • , H. Li
    • , S. T. Cundiff
    • , M. Mootz
    • , M. Kira
    •  & S. W. Koch
  • Letter |

    A very precise measurement of the magnetic moment of a single electron bound to a carbon nucleus, combined with a state-of-the-art calculation in the framework of bound-state quantum electrodynamics, gives a new value of the atomic mass of the electron that is more precise than the currently accepted one by a factor of 13.

    • S. Sturm
    • , F. Köhler
    • , J. Zatorski
    • , A. Wagner
    • , Z. Harman
    • , G. Werth
    • , W. Quint
    • , C. H. Keitel
    •  & K. Blaum
  • Letter |

    The link between biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere and their conversion to aerosol particles is unclear, but a direct reaction pathway is now described by which volatile organic compounds lead to low-volatility vapours that can then condense onto aerosol surfaces, producing secondary organic aerosol.

    • Mikael Ehn
    • , Joel A. Thornton
    • , Einhard Kleist
    • , Mikko Sipilä
    • , Heikki Junninen
    • , Iida Pullinen
    • , Monika Springer
    • , Florian Rubach
    • , Ralf Tillmann
    • , Ben Lee
    • , Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker
    • , Stefanie Andres
    • , Ismail-Hakki Acir
    • , Matti Rissanen
    • , Tuija Jokinen
    • , Siegfried Schobesberger
    • , Juha Kangasluoma
    • , Jenni Kontkanen
    • , Tuomo Nieminen
    • , Theo Kurtén
    • , Lasse B. Nielsen
    • , Solvejg Jørgensen
    • , Henrik G. Kjaergaard
    • , Manjula Canagaratna
    • , Miikka Dal Maso
    • , Torsten Berndt
    • , Tuukka Petäjä
    • , Andreas Wahner
    • , Veli-Matti Kerminen
    • , Markku Kulmala
    • , Douglas R. Worsnop
    • , Jürgen Wildt
    •  & Thomas F. Mentel

Retraction

Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Kim Newton
    • , Joanne M. Hildebrand
    • , Zhirong Shen
    • , Diego Rodriguez
    • , Silvia Alvarez-Diaz
    • , Sean Petersen
    • , Saumil Shah
    • , Debra L. Dugger
    • , Chunzi Huang
    • , Johan Auwerx
    • , Peter Vandenabeele
    • , Douglas R. Green
    • , Avi Ashkenazi
    • , Vishva M. Dixit
    • , William J. Kaiser
    • , Andreas Strasser
    • , Alexei Degterev
    •  & John Silke

Erratum

Article

  • Article |

    The Crohn’s disease risk-conferring T300A variant in the autophagy protein ATG16L1 increases its sensitivity to caspase-3-mediated cleavage; this decreases the induction of autophagy in response to metabolic stress or pathogen infection, leading to increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines.

    • Aditya Murthy
    • , Yun Li
    • , Ivan Peng
    • , Mike Reichelt
    • , Anand Kumar Katakam
    • , Rajkumar Noubade
    • , Merone Roose-Girma
    • , Jason DeVoss
    • , Lauri Diehl
    • , Robert R. Graham
    •  & Menno van Lookeren Campagne
  • Article |

    Although genetically bland, the posterior fossa group A subgroup of ependymomas, found often in infants and associated with poor prognosis, exhibit widespread epigenetic alterations, namely a CpG island methylator phenotype; these tumours are shown to be susceptible both in vitro and in vivo to various compounds that target epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation and H3K27 tri-methylation.

    • S. C. Mack
    • , H. Witt
    • , R. M. Piro
    • , L. Gu
    • , S. Zuyderduyn
    • , A. M. Stütz
    • , X. Wang
    • , M. Gallo
    • , L. Garzia
    • , K. Zayne
    • , X. Zhang
    • , V. Ramaswamy
    • , N. Jäger
    • , D. T. W. Jones
    • , M. Sill
    • , T. J. Pugh
    • , M. Ryzhova
    • , K. M. Wani
    • , D. J. H. Shih
    • , R. Head
    • , M. Remke
    • , S. D. Bailey
    • , T. Zichner
    • , C. C. Faria
    • , M. Barszczyk
    • , S. Stark
    • , H. Seker-Cin
    • , S. Hutter
    • , P. Johann
    • , S. Bender
    • , V. Hovestadt
    • , T. Tzaridis
    • , A. M. Dubuc
    • , P. A. Northcott
    • , J. Peacock
    • , K. C. Bertrand
    • , S. Agnihotri
    • , F. M. G. Cavalli
    • , I. Clarke
    • , K. Nethery-Brokx
    • , C. L. Creasy
    • , S. K. Verma
    • , J. Koster
    • , X. Wu
    • , Y. Yao
    • , T. Milde
    • , P. Sin-Chan
    • , J. Zuccaro
    • , L. Lau
    • , S. Pereira
    • , P. Castelo-Branco
    • , M. Hirst
    • , M. A. Marra
    • , S. S. Roberts
    • , D. Fults
    • , L. Massimi
    • , Y. J. Cho
    • , T. Van Meter
    • , W. Grajkowska
    • , B. Lach
    • , A. E. Kulozik
    • , A. von Deimling
    • , O. Witt
    • , S. W. Scherer
    • , X. Fan
    • , K. M. Muraszko
    • , M. Kool
    • , S. L. Pomeroy
    • , N. Gupta
    • , J. Phillips
    • , A. Huang
    • , U. Tabori
    • , C. Hawkins
    • , D. Malkin
    • , P. N. Kongkham
    • , W. A. Weiss
    • , N. Jabado
    • , J. T. Rutka
    • , E. Bouffet
    • , J. O. Korbel
    • , M. Lupien
    • , K. D. Aldape
    • , G. D. Bader
    • , R. Eils
    • , P. Lichter
    • , P. B. Dirks
    • , S. M. Pfister
    • , A. Korshunov
    •  & M. D. Taylor
  • Article |

    At least two-thirds of supratentorial ependymomas contain oncogenic fusions between RELA, the principal effector of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signalling, and uncharacterized gene C11orf95; C11orf95–RELA fusion proteins translocate spontaneously to the nucleus to activate NF-κB target genes, and rapidly transform neural stem cells to form tumours in mice

    • Matthew Parker
    • , Kumarasamypet M. Mohankumar
    • , Chandanamali Punchihewa
    • , Ricardo Weinlich
    • , James D. Dalton
    • , Yongjin Li
    • , Ryan Lee
    • , Ruth G. Tatevossian
    • , Timothy N. Phoenix
    • , Radhika Thiruvenkatam
    • , Elsie White
    • , Bo Tang
    • , Wilda Orisme
    • , Kirti Gupta
    • , Michael Rusch
    • , Xiang Chen
    • , Yuxin Li
    • , Panduka Nagahawhatte
    • , Erin Hedlund
    • , David Finkelstein
    • , Gang Wu
    • , Sheila Shurtleff
    • , John Easton
    • , Kristy Boggs
    • , Donald Yergeau
    • , Bhavin Vadodaria
    • , Heather L. Mulder
    • , Jared Becksfort
    • , Pankaj Gupta
    • , Robert Huether
    • , Jing Ma
    • , Guangchun Song
    • , Amar Gajjar
    • , Thomas Merchant
    • , Frederick Boop
    • , Amy A. Smith
    • , Li Ding
    • , Charles Lu
    • , Kerri Ochoa
    • , David Zhao
    • , Robert S. Fulton
    • , Lucinda L. Fulton
    • , Elaine R. Mardis
    • , Richard K. Wilson
    • , James R. Downing
    • , Douglas R. Green
    • , Jinghui Zhang
    • , David W. Ellison
    •  & Richard J. Gilbertson

Addendum

  • Addendum |

    • Manimozhiyan Arumugam
    • , Jeroen Raes
    • , Eric Pelletier
    • , Denis Le Paslier
    • , Takuji Yamada
    • , Daniel R. Mende
    • , Gabriel R. Fernandes
    • , Julien Tap
    • , Thomas Bruls
    • , Jean-Michel Batto
    • , Marcelo Bertalan
    • , Natalia Borruel
    • , Francesc Casellas
    • , Leyden Fernandez
    • , Laurent Gautier
    • , Torben Hansen
    • , Masahira Hattori
    • , Tetsuya Hayashi
    • , Michiel Kleerebezem
    • , Ken Kurokawa
    • , Marion Leclerc
    • , Florence Levenez
    • , Chaysavanh Manichanh
    • , H. Bjørn Nielsen
    • , Trine Nielsen
    • , Nicolas Pons
    • , Julie Poulain
    • , Junjie Qin
    • , Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten
    • , Sebastian Tims
    • , David Torrents
    • , Edgardo Ugarte
    • , Erwin G. Zoetendal
    • , Jun Wang
    • , Francisco Guarner
    • , Oluf Pedersen
    • , Willem M. de Vos
    • , Søren Brunak
    • , Joel Doré
    • , MetaHIT Consortium
    • , Jean Weissenbach
    • , S. Dusko Ehrlich
    •  & Peer Bork

Feature

Career Brief

  • Career Brief |

    University consortium aims to boost diversity using NSF funds.

  • Career Brief |

    Government grant will use fellowships to increase the number of research managers.

  • Career Brief |

    Race presents major barrier to advancement in the behavioural sciences, says study.

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