Volume 495 Issue 7442, 28 March 2013

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    A ban on advocacy and promotion of gun control is keeping US agencies from conducting research that is sorely needed to inform policy on firearms and prevent shootings.

  • Editorial |

    How scientists share and reuse information is driven by technology but shaped by discipline.

  • Editorial |

    The latest private research vessel to be launched could open up the world of marine science.

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    The week in science: US science agencies get funding boost; UK edges towards approving IVF techniques to avoid some genetic diseases; and Australia gets fourth science minister in less than 16 months.

News

Correction

News Feature

Comment

  • Comment |

    The journal and article are being superseded by algorithms that filter, rate and disseminate scholarship as it happens, argues Jason Priem.

    • Jason Priem
  • Comment |

    Objections to the Creative Commons attribution licence are straw men raised by parties who want open access to be as closed as possible, warns John Wilbanks.

    • John Wilbanks
  • Comment |

    Three advocates for a universally free scholarly literature give their prescriptions for the movement's next push, from findability to translations.

Books & Arts

  • Books & Arts |

    Robert Darnton heads the world's largest collection of academic publications, the Harvard University Library system. He is also a driver behind the new Digital Public Library of America. Ahead of its launch in April, he talks about Google, science journals and the open-access debate.

    • Jascha Hoffman

Correspondence

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Surveillance analyses of a large population in rural South Africa make a compelling case that sustained support for this therapy is essential.

    • Grace John-Stewart
  • News & Views |

    A neat approach that involves laying an array of nanoparticles on a graphene sheet supported on an iridium substrate has allowed accurate measurement of the nanoparticles' atomic structure.

    • Simon Billinge
  • News & Views |

    A record of biogenic opal production in the subtropical Atlantic Ocean fuels the theory that ocean circulation, rather than winds, drove the release of carbon dioxide from deep marine waters at the end of the last ice age. See Letter p.495

    • Elisabeth Sikes
  • News & Views |

    Crystalline 'sponges' offer a way to impose order on small molecules so that their structures can be solved by X-ray crystallography. This enables nanogram quantities of material to be analysed using the technique. See Article p.461

    • Pierre Stallforth
    •  & Jon Clardy
  • News & Views |

    The discovery, in 500-million-year-old rocks, of fossil acorn worms that lived in tubes illuminates the debate about whether the ancestor of vertebrates was a mobile worm-like animal or a sessile colony dweller. See Letter p.503

    • Henry Gee
  • News & Views |

    The activity of G-protein-coupled receptors is not limited to the cell surface. Evidence from microscopy points to three temporally, spatially and perhaps functionally distinct waves of signalling by these receptors. See Letter p.534

    • Martin J. Lohse
    •  & Davide Calebiro

Futures

  • Futures |

    Go with the flow.

    • George Zebrowski

Article

  • Article |

    The identification of pathogenic mutations within prion-like domains (PrLDs) of the RNA-binding proteins hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 add to our understanding of how mutations in these proteins lead to degenerative disease, and highlight the potential importance of PrLDs in degenerative diseases of the nervous system, muscle and bone.

    • Hong Joo Kim
    • , Nam Chul Kim
    • , Yong-Dong Wang
    • , Emily A. Scarborough
    • , Jennifer Moore
    • , Zamia Diaz
    • , Kyle S. MacLea
    • , Brian Freibaum
    • , Songqing Li
    • , Amandine Molliex
    • , Anderson P. Kanagaraj
    • , Robert Carter
    • , Kevin B. Boylan
    • , Aleksandra M. Wojtas
    • , Rosa Rademakers
    • , Jack L. Pinkus
    • , Steven A. Greenberg
    • , John Q. Trojanowski
    • , Bryan J. Traynor
    • , Bradley N. Smith
    • , Simon Topp
    • , Athina-Soragia Gkazi
    • , Jack Miller
    • , Christopher E. Shaw
    • , Michael Kottlors
    • , Janbernd Kirschner
    • , Alan Pestronk
    • , Yun R. Li
    • , Alice Flynn Ford
    • , Aaron D. Gitler
    • , Michael Benatar
    • , Oliver D. King
    • , Virginia E. Kimonis
    • , Eric D. Ross
    • , Conrad C. Weihl
    • , James Shorter
    •  & J. Paul Taylor
  • Article |

    Inactivating the CLP1 RNA kinase in mice leads to a progressive loss of motor neurons, through a mechanism related to the accumulation of a novel set of small RNA fragments derived from aberrant processing of tyrosine pre-transfer RNA.

    • Toshikatsu Hanada
    • , Stefan Weitzer
    • , Barbara Mair
    • , Christian Bernreuther
    • , Brian J. Wainger
    • , Justin Ichida
    • , Reiko Hanada
    • , Michael Orthofer
    • , Shane J. Cronin
    • , Vukoslav Komnenovic
    • , Adi Minis
    • , Fuminori Sato
    • , Hiromitsu Mimata
    • , Akihiko Yoshimura
    • , Ido Tamir
    • , Johannes Rainer
    • , Reinhard Kofler
    • , Avraham Yaron
    • , Kevin C. Eggan
    • , Clifford J. Woolf
    • , Markus Glatzel
    • , Ruth Herbst
    • , Javier Martinez
    •  & Josef M. Penninger
  • Article |

    Absorption of target molecules into a porous matrix permits single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the ‘guest’ molecules, avoiding the need to obtain them in single-crystal form and making analysis possible using as little as 80 nanograms of sample.

    • Yasuhide Inokuma
    • , Shota Yoshioka
    • , Junko Ariyoshi
    • , Tatsuhiko Arai
    • , Yuki Hitora
    • , Kentaro Takada
    • , Shigeki Matsunaga
    • , Kari Rissanen
    •  & Makoto Fujita
  • Article |

    Cryo-electron microscopy structures of key intermediates during the sequential assembly of the pre-initiation complex are presented; structures of the closed and open-promoter complexes allow insights into the process of promoter melting.

    • Yuan He
    • , Jie Fang
    • , Dylan J. Taatjes
    •  & Eva Nogales

Letter

  • Letter |

    Haematopoietic expression of the adaptor protein Trib1 is shown to be required for the presence of adipose-tissue-resident macrophages with an M2-like phenotype; Trib1 deficiency leads to aberrant expression of C/EBPα and impaired adipose tissue function.

    • Takashi Satoh
    • , Hiroyasu Kidoya
    • , Hisamichi Naito
    • , Masahiro Yamamoto
    • , Naoki Takemura
    • , Katsuhiro Nakagawa
    • , Yoshichika Yoshioka
    • , Eiichi Morii
    • , Nobuyuki Takakura
    • , Osamu Takeuchi
    •  & Shizuo Akira
  • Letter |

    New and archival observations of the low-metallicity dwarf irregular galaxy WLM show that it contains carbon monoxide, the main tracer for interstellar clouds capable of forming stars, and suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and carbon monoxide become increasingly rare as the metallicity decreases.

    • Bruce G. Elmegreen
    • , Monica Rubio
    • , Deidre A. Hunter
    • , Celia Verdugo
    • , Elias Brinks
    •  & Andreas Schruba
  • Letter |

    The vibrational motion of trapped BaCl+ molecules can be quenched by collisions with ultracold calcium atoms at a rate comparable to the classical scattering rate; this method is over four orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional sympathetic cooling schemes and should be applicable to many different types of molecule.

    • Wade G. Rellergert
    • , Scott T. Sullivan
    • , Steven J. Schowalter
    • , Svetlana Kotochigova
    • , Kuang Chen
    •  & Eric R. Hudson
  • Letter |

    High levels of TFIID, a basal transcription factor, are found to be essential to induce and maintain the transcriptional program of pluripotent cells.

    • W. W. M. Pim Pijnappel
    • , Daniel Esch
    • , Marijke P. A. Baltissen
    • , Guangming Wu
    • , Nikolai Mischerikow
    • , Atze J. Bergsma
    • , Erik van der Wal
    • , Dong Wook Han
    • , Hermann vom Bruch
    • , Sören Moritz
    • , Phillip Lijnzaad
    • , A. F. Maarten Altelaar
    • , Katrin Sameith
    • , Holm Zaehres
    • , Albert J. R. Heck
    • , Frank C. P. Holstege
    • , Hans R. Schöler
    •  & H. T. Marc Timmers
  • Letter |

    The microtubule orientation regulators CLASP and MAP65 are shown to control the distribution of the polarity regulator PINOID kinase by controlling its retention at the plasma membrane, providing a mechanism for how polarity is established in plants.

    • Klementina Kakar
    • , Hongtao Zhang
    • , Ben Scheres
    •  & Pankaj Dhonukshe
  • Letter |

    Newly discovered fossils of primitive birds from China, preserved with ovarian follicles intact, show that birds only had one functioning ovary at any given time from a very early date, but that other features, such as skeletal and sexual maturity, remained very dinosaur-like.

    • Xiaoting Zheng
    • , Jingmai O’Connor
    • , Fritz Huchzermeyer
    • , Xiaoli Wang
    • , Yan Wang
    • , Min Wang
    •  & Zhonghe Zhou
  • Letter |

    The TcA component of Photorhabdus luminescens ABC-type toxin complexes forms a transmembrane pore and injects TcC, the functional component of the toxin, into the target cell by means of a syringe-like mechanism.

    • Christos Gatsogiannis
    • , Alexander E. Lang
    • , Dominic Meusch
    • , Vanda Pfaumann
    • , Oliver Hofnagel
    • , Roland Benz
    • , Klaus Aktories
    •  & Stefan Raunser
  • Letter |

    Conformation-specific antibodies capable of monitoring the activation state of a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor, the β2-adrenoceptor, reveals receptor and G-protein activation not only in the plasma membrane, but also in the endosome.

    • Roshanak Irannejad
    • , Jin C. Tomshine
    • , Jon R. Tomshine
    • , Michael Chevalier
    • , Jacob P. Mahoney
    • , Jan Steyaert
    • , Søren G. F. Rasmussen
    • , Roger K. Sunahara
    • , Hana El-Samad
    • , Bo Huang
    •  & Mark von Zastrow
  • Letter |

    Records of biogenic opal export in the North Atlantic Ocean show pronounced maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years, consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water and a consequent increase in upward silicate transport.

    • A. N. Meckler
    • , D. M. Sigman
    • , K. A. Gibson
    • , R. François
    • , A. Martínez-García
    • , S. L. Jaccard
    • , U. Röhl
    • , L. C. Peterson
    • , R. Tiedemann
    •  & G. H. Haug
  • Letter |

    Examination of a fossil enteropneust, Spartobranchus tenuis (Walcott, 1911), from the Cambrian-period Burgess Shale shows that they looked similar to modern enteropneusts but lived in tubes, like modern pterobranchs; the findings shed light on the common ancestor of enteropneusts and pterobranchs, and hence the origin of chordates.

    • Jean-Bernard Caron
    • , Simon Conway Morris
    •  & Christopher B. Cameron

Brief Communications Arising

  • Brief Communications Arising |

    • Benjamin S. Halpern
    • , Steven D. Gaines
    • , Kristin Kleisner
    • , Catherine Longo
    • , Daniel Pauly
    • , Andrew A. Rosenberg
    • , Jameal F. Samhouri
    •  & Dirk Zeller

Feature

Q&A

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