Volume 493 Issue 7432, 17 January 2013

Editorial

World View

Research Highlights

Seven Days

News

News Feature

Comment

  • Comment |

    To help transform our understanding of the biosphere, ecologists — like climate scientists — should simulate whole ecosystems, argue Drew Purves and colleagues.

    • Drew Purves
    • , Jörn P. W. Scharlemann
    • , Mike Harfoot
    • , Tim Newbold
    • , Derek P. Tittensor
    • , Jon Hutton
    •  & Stephen Emmott
  • Comment |

    Sally Rockey, deputy director for extramural research at the US National Institutes of Health, reflects on the second anniversary of her precedent-setting blog.

    • Sally Rockey

Books & Arts

Correspondence

Correction

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Fossils of microorganisms from deep-sea sediment cores show that environmental change correlates closely with extinction but not with speciation, producing a nuanced view of the drivers of evolution. See Letter p.398

    • Steven M. Holland
  • News & Views |

    Magmas that have erupted at Earth's surface reveal a potential new mantle source. This source, which is rich in nickel and has a primordial helium isotopic content, may have originated at great depth in the mantle. See Letter p.393

    • Michael J. Walter
  • News & Views |

    Cellular reprogramming to a stem-cell-like state is inefficient and poorly understood, despite its biomedical potential. Detailed molecular analyses of this process are now reported, and should help to overcome these limitations.

    • Ignacio Sancho-Martinez
    •  & Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
  • News & Views |

    Sustained activity of the brain-specific enzyme PKM-ζ is thought to underlie the maintenance of long-term memories. Studies in PKM-ζ-deficient mice, however, cast the importance of this protein into question. See Letters p.416 & p.420

    • Paul W. Frankland
    •  & Sheena A. Josselyn
  • News & Views |

    The use of confocal fluorescence microscopy to image defects in crystalline, porous solids known as metal–organic frameworks enables the relationship between the number of defects and the materials' properties to be determined.

    • Christian Serre
  • News & Views |

    A method has been developed to compute the precise quantum-mechanical properties of certain insulators. This approach avoids the uncertainties that are intrinsic to predictions made using existing approaches. See Article p.365

    • Paul R. C. Kent

Correction

Introduction

  • Introduction |

    • Francesca Cesari
    • , I-han Chou
    • , Angela K. Eggleston
    • , Marie-Thérèse Heemels
    • , Barbara Marte
    •  & Ursula Weiss

Review Article

Article

  • Article |

    Recent developments that reduce the computational cost and scaling of wavefunction-based quantum-chemical techniques open the way to the successful application of such techniques to a variety of real-world solids.

    • George H. Booth
    • , Andreas Grüneis
    • , Georg Kresse
    •  & Ali Alavi
  • Article |

    Mice lacking 4E-BP2, an eIF4E repressor, display increased translation of neuroligins; the mice also show autism-related behaviours and alterations in hippocampal synaptic activity, and these are reversed by normalization of eIF4E activity or neuroligin 1 levels.

    • Christos G. Gkogkas
    • , Arkady Khoutorsky
    • , Israeli Ran
    • , Emmanouil Rampakakis
    • , Tatiana Nevarko
    • , Daniel B. Weatherill
    • , Cristina Vasuta
    • , Stephanie Yee
    • , Morgan Truitt
    • , Paul Dallaire
    • , François Major
    • , Paul Lasko
    • , Davide Ruggero
    • , Karim Nader
    • , Jean-Claude Lacaille
    •  & Nahum Sonenberg

Letter

  • Letter |

    The infrared luminosity of a young protostar (about 105 years old) is found to increase by a factor of ten in roughly one week every 25.34 days; this is attributed to pulsed accretion associated with an unseen binary companion.

    • James Muzerolle
    • , Elise Furlan
    • , Kevin Flaherty
    • , Zoltan Balog
    •  & Robert Gutermuth
  • Letter |

    Numerical simulations of a widely separated binary star system demonstrate that planetary systems around one star may often be strongly perturbed by the other star, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets.

    • Nathan A. Kaib
    • , Sean N. Raymond
    •  & Martin Duncan
  • Letter |

    The hardness, toughness and chemical stability of the well-known superhard material cubic boron nitride have been improved by using a synthesis technique based on specially prepared ‘onion-like’ precursor materials.

    • Yongjun Tian
    • , Bo Xu
    • , Dongli Yu
    • , Yanming Ma
    • , Yanbin Wang
    • , Yingbing Jiang
    • , Wentao Hu
    • , Chengchun Tang
    • , Yufei Gao
    • , Kun Luo
    • , Zhisheng Zhao
    • , Li-Min Wang
    • , Bin Wen
    • , Julong He
    •  & Zhongyuan Liu
  • Letter |

    Proxy indicators of relative moisture balance, in combination with long control simulations from coupled climate models, show that the Indian Ocean drives multidecadal hydroclimate variability by altering the local Walker circulation, whereas the influence of the Pacific Ocean is minimal on these timescales.

    • Jessica E. Tierney
    • , Jason E. Smerdon
    • , Kevin J. Anchukaitis
    •  & Richard Seager
  • Letter |

    Several nickel-rich and helium-rich lava samples from ocean islands and large igneous provinces suggest that mantle plume material formed by core–mantle interaction during the crystallization of a melt-rich layer or basal magma ocean.

    • Claude Herzberg
    • , Paul D. Asimow
    • , Dmitri A. Ionov
    • , Chris Vidito
    • , Matthew G. Jackson
    •  & Dennis Geist
  • Letter |

    Rare truncating mutations in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are shown to be associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer; notably, all of the mutations are mosaic in white blood cells but are not present in tumours, and probably have a gain-of-function effect.

    • Elise Ruark
    • , Katie Snape
    • , Peter Humburg
    • , Chey Loveday
    • , Ilirjana Bajrami
    • , Rachel Brough
    • , Daniel Nava Rodrigues
    • , Anthony Renwick
    • , Sheila Seal
    • , Emma Ramsay
    • , Silvana Del Vecchio Duarte
    • , Manuel A. Rivas
    • , Margaret Warren-Perry
    • , Anna Zachariou
    • , Adriana Campion-Flora
    • , Sandra Hanks
    • , Anne Murray
    • , Naser Ansari Pour
    • , Jenny Douglas
    • , Lorna Gregory
    • , Andrew Rimmer
    • , Neil M. Walker
    • , Tsun-Po Yang
    • , Julian W. Adlard
    • , Julian Barwell
    • , Jonathan Berg
    • , Angela F. Brady
    • , Carole Brewer
    • , Glen Brice
    • , Cyril Chapman
    • , Jackie Cook
    • , Rosemarie Davidson
    • , Alan Donaldson
    • , Fiona Douglas
    • , Diana Eccles
    • , D. Gareth Evans
    • , Lynn Greenhalgh
    • , Alex Henderson
    • , Louise Izatt
    • , Ajith Kumar
    • , Fiona Lalloo
    • , Zosia Miedzybrodzka
    • , Patrick J. Morrison
    • , Joan Paterson
    • , Mary Porteous
    • , Mark T. Rogers
    • , Susan Shanley
    • , Lisa Walker
    • , Martin Gore
    • , Richard Houlston
    • , Matthew A. Brown
    • , Mark J. Caufield
    • , Panagiotis Deloukas
    • , Mark I. McCarthy
    • , John A. Todd
    • , Clare Turnbull
    • , Jorge S. Reis-Filho
    • , Alan Ashworth
    • , Antonis C. Antoniou
    • , Christopher J. Lord
    • , Peter Donnelly
    •  & Nazneen Rahman
  • Letter |

    Mice overexpressing eIF4E show autism-related behaviours and altered synaptic activity in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum, and these phenotypes can be rescued with the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1.

    • Emanuela Santini
    • , Thu N. Huynh
    • , Andrew F. MacAskill
    • , Adam G. Carter
    • , Philippe Pierre
    • , Davide Ruggero
    • , Hanoch Kaphzan
    •  & Eric Klann
  • Letter |

    Genetically removing PKM-ζ in mice has no effect on memory, and despite absence of this kinase, the original peptide inhibitor of PKM-ζ still disrupts memory in these mutant mice; these data re-open the exploration for key molecules regulating maintenance of long-term plasticity processes.

    • Anna M. Lee
    • , Benjamin R. Kanter
    • , Dan Wang
    • , Jana P. Lim
    • , Mimi E. Zou
    • , Chichen Qiu
    • , Thomas McMahon
    • , Jahan Dadgar
    • , Sarah C. Fischbach-Weiss
    •  & Robert O. Messing
  • Letter |

    It was proposed that protein kinase M-ζ (PKM-ζ) is a key factor in long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory maintenance on the basis of the disruption of LTP and memory by inhibitors of PKM-ζ; however, here mice that do not express PKM-ζ are shown to have normal LTP and memory, thus casting doubts on a critical role for PKM-ζ in these processes.

    • Lenora J. Volk
    • , Julia L. Bachman
    • , Richard Johnson
    • , Yilin Yu
    •  & Richard L. Huganir
  • Letter |

    When an odour activates a fly′s antennae asymmetrically, more neurotransmitter is released from olfactory receptor neuron axon branches ipsilateral to the antenna than from contralateral branches. This causes ipsilateral central olfactory neurons to begin spiking earlier and at a higher rate than contralateral neurons, thereby enabling a walking fly to turn towards the odour.

    • Quentin Gaudry
    • , Elizabeth J. Hong
    • , Jamey Kain
    • , Benjamin L. de Bivort
    •  & Rachel I. Wilson
  • Letter |

    During normal ageing a low rate of division of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, rather than progenitor cells, is responsible for cardiomyocyte genesis; this process is increased fourfold during myocardial infarction.

    • Samuel E. Senyo
    • , Matthew L. Steinhauser
    • , Christie L. Pizzimenti
    • , Vicky K. Yang
    • , Lei Cai
    • , Mei Wang
    • , Ting-Di Wu
    • , Jean-Luc Guerquin-Kern
    • , Claude P. Lechene
    •  & Richard T. Lee
  • Letter |

    Crystal structures of the Pol II–TFIIB complex in free form and bound by the DNA template and a short RNA product are reported; the latter complex represents an initially transcribing complex, a critical transient state in the pathway from transcription initiation to elongation.

    • Sarah Sainsbury
    • , Jürgen Niesser
    •  & Patrick Cramer

Feature

  • Feature |

    The budding field of informal science education offers varied research paths but uncertain funding.

    • Virginia Gewin

Q&A

Futures

Insight

  • Insight |

    Frontiers in biology

    Reviews in this Insight, which highlights important advances in biology, include self-organization of tissues, Fanconi anaemia and its links to genomic stability, the possibility of slowing ageing with drugs that target mTOR, metabolism of inflammation and how this is limited by AMPK activation, and the role of neuron signalling in autism.

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