Volume 441 Issue 7095, 15 June 2006

Authors

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    A popular new paradigm for the nature of change pertains more to the social and political worlds than it does to the physical one.

  • Editorial |

    Will a change of management at Los Alamos put basic research under pressure?

Research Highlights

News

News in Brief

Correction

News Feature

  • News Feature |

    Could climate change run away with itself? Gabrielle Walker looks at the balance of evidence.

    • Gabrielle Walker
  • News Feature |

    Reducing your calorie intake makes you live longer — if you're a rat or a worm. Laura Spinney asks whether the same holds for humans — and if it does, whether the benefits could be put in a pill.

    • Laura Spinney

Business

  • Business |

    More and more venture capitalists are backing clean technology in the United States, but will it take off? Virginia Gewin reports.

Correspondence

Books & Arts

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Human and monkey immunodeficiency viruses are studded with ‘spikes’ that enable them to infect cells. Structural studies reveal that these spikes are tripod-like assemblies that cluster on the virus surface.

    • Dennis R. Burton
  • News & Views |

    When oxygen atoms bind to a graphite surface, they fall into line and make bridges across carbon atoms. This is the spearhead of a chemical attack in which the atomic arrangement of solid carbon is torn apart.

    • Pulickel M. Ajayan
    •  & Boris I. Yakobson
  • News & Views |

    Autophagy — cellular ‘self-eating’ — can be induced by stress, but it also acts continuously in a housekeeping role, disposing of unwanted proteins. Can it protect against neurodegenerative diseases?

    • Daniel J. Klionsky
  • News & Views |

    Mutually repulsive atoms placed at periodic intervals in a ‘crystal of light’ can, counterintuitively, be forced into stable couplings. That theoretical prediction has just seen experimental confirmation.

    • Leonardo Fallani
    •  & Massimo Inguscio
  • News & Views |

    In a changing world, how do we decide our best option? How do we settle between picking something familiar or trying out a new, possibly more rewarding, choice?

    • Daeyeol Lee
  • News & Views |

    Carbon is unusual in its family of elements because it has gaseous oxides. But under high pressure, carbon dioxide forms crystalline solids and can become a glass — so revealing the chemical family resemblance.

    • Paul F. McMillan

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    One of two papers showing that loss of autophagy in the central nervous system of mice causes the accumulation of protein aggregates in inclusion bodies, neurodegeneration and premature death of the mice. This demonstrates that continuous clearance of cellular components is essential for proper housekeeping and vital to keep the neurons in tiptop shape.

    • Masaaki Komatsu
    • , Satoshi Waguri
    • , Tomoki Chiba
    • , Shigeo Murata
    • , Jun-ichi Iwata
    • , Isei Tanida
    • , Takashi Ueno
    • , Masato Koike
    • , Yasuo Uchiyama
    • , Eiki Kominami
    •  & Keiji Tanaka
  • Letter |

    One of two papers showing that loss of autophagy in the central nervous system of mice causes the accumulation of protein aggregates in inclusion bodies, neurodegeneration and premature death of the mice. This demonstrates that continuous clearance of cellular components is essential for proper housekeeping and vital to keep the neurons in tiptop shape.

    • Taichi Hara
    • , Kenji Nakamura
    • , Makoto Matsui
    • , Akitsugu Yamamoto
    • , Yohko Nakahara
    • , Rika Suzuki-Migishima
    • , Minesuke Yokoyama
    • , Kenji Mishima
    • , Ichiro Saito
    • , Hideyuki Okano
    •  & Noboru Mizushima
  • Letter |

    Breeding experiments re-created the intermediate wing coloration of Heliconius heurippa from H. cydno and H. melpomene, showing that its distinctive patterning reproductively isolates it from the parent species and that a hybrid trait directly causes reproductive isolation.

    • Jesús Mavárez
    • , Camilo A. Salazar
    • , Eldredge Bermingham
    • , Christian Salcedo
    • , Chris D. Jiggins
    •  & Mauricio Linares
  • Letter |

    Use of a gambling task and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner shows that human subjects' choices can be characterized by a computationally well regarded strategy for addressing the explore/exploit dilemma.

    • Nathaniel D. Daw
    • , John P. O'Doherty
    • , Peter Dayan
    • , Ben Seymour
    •  & Raymond J. Dolan
  • Letter |

    Development of an asymmetric organocatalytic triple cascade able to synthesize tetra-substituted cyclohexene carbaldehydes proceeds through a Michael/Michael/aldol condensation sequence, generating four stereogenic centres with high diastereo- and complete enantiocontrol in good to moderate yields.

    • Dieter Enders
    • , Matthias R. M. Hüttl
    • , Christoph Grondal
    •  & Gerhard Raabe
  • Letter |

    As well as cleaving hydrophobic stretches of amino acids in the plane of the cell membrane, the protease signal peptide peptidase plays a role in the disposal of unwanted glycoproteins from the endoplasmic reticulum — indicating that these proteases may be important for general membrane protein quality control.

    • Joana Loureiro
    • , Brendan N. Lilley
    • , Eric Spooner
    • , Vanessa Noriega
    • , Domenico Tortorella
    •  & Hidde L. Ploegh
  • Letter |

    β-catenin stabilizes the mRNA encoding the F-box protein βTrCP1, and the RNA-binding protein CRD–BP (coding region determinant-binding protein) is identified as a previously unknown target of β-catenin/Tcf transcription factor.

    • Felicite K. Noubissi
    • , Irina Elcheva
    • , Neehar Bhatia
    • , Abbas Shakoori
    • , Andrei Ougolkov
    • , Jianghuai Liu
    • , Toshinari Minamoto
    • , Jeff Ross
    • , Serge Y. Fuchs
    •  & Vladimir S. Spiegelman
  • Letter |

    A sophisticated radiative transfer model estimates the effect of air traffic condensation trails, or contrails, on the atmosphere — although the effect is currently small compared with that induced by other sources of human emissions, the comparably large growth rate of air traffic requires an improved understanding of the resulting impact.

    • Nicola Stuber
    • , Piers Forster
    • , Gaby Rädel
    •  & Keith Shine
  • Letter |

    In a periodic potential with no dissipation, stable composite objects can exist even for repulsive interactions. The paper reports the observation of such an exotic bound state, which is comprised of a pair of ultracold rubidium atoms in an optical lattice.

    • K. Winkler
    • , G. Thalhammer
    • , F. Lang
    • , R. Grimm
    • , J. Hecker Denschlag
    • , A. J. Daley
    • , A. Kantian
    • , H. P. Büchler
    •  & P. Zoller

Review Article

  • Review Article |

    The high-pressure nature of the core-forming process led to the Earth's core being richer in low atomic number elements, notably silicon and possibly oxygen, than the smaller planetesimal building blocks would indicate.

    • Bernard J. Wood
    • , Michael J. Walter
    •  & Jonathan Wade

Article

Corrigendum

Prospects

Movers

Recruiters and Academia

  • Recruiters and Academia |

    NSF postdoc does physics down under.

    • Charles Tahan

Graduate Journal

  • Graduate Journal |

    The joy and trepidation of graduation.

    • Andreas Andersson
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