Reviews & Analysis

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  • This Review examines inflammatory bowel disease in the context of human genetics studies that help to identify pathways that regulate homeostasis of the mucosal immune system and discusses future prospects for disease-subtype classification and therapeutic intervention.

    • Daniel B. Graham
    • Ramnik J. Xavier
    Review Article
  • The scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR technology for therapeutic applications in humans are discussed, highlighting both opportunities and challenges of this technology to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.

    • Jennifer A. Doudna
    Review Article
  • Understanding the dynamics between bacteria and bacteriophages could enable the development of phage-based therapies and biotechnological tools and provide insights into the ecology and evolution of these microorganisms.

    • Hannah G. Hampton
    • Bridget N. J. Watson
    • Peter C. Fineran
    Review Article
  • This Review describes progress in the study of human genetics, in which rapid advances in technology, foundational genomic resources and analytical tools have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for many rare and common diseases and to preventative and therapeutic strategies for many of these conditions.

    • Melina Claussnitzer
    • Judy H. Cho
    • Mark I. McCarthy
    Review Article
  • A Review of studies into insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    • Michael Roden
    • Gerald I. Shulman
    Review Article
  • A review of drug resistance in cancer analyses each biological determinant of resistance separately and discusses existing and new therapeutic strategies to combat the problem as a whole.

    • Neil Vasan
    • José Baselga
    • David M. Hyman
    Review Article
  • An overview of the effects of vaccines on global morbidity and mortality, vaccine safety issues, and the hurdles involved in proceeding from vaccine discovery to successful implementation.

    • Peter Piot
    • Heidi J. Larson
    • Beate Kampmann
    Review Article
  • Structural metals enable improved energy efficiency through their reduced mass, higher thermal stability and better mechanical properties; here, methods of improving the sustainability of structural metals, from recycling to contaminant tolerance, are described.

    • Dierk Raabe
    • C. Cem Tasan
    • Elsa A. Olivetti
    Review Article
  • Genetic strategies for improving the yield and sustainability of agricultural crops, and the resilience of crops in the face of biotic and abiotic stresses contingent on projected climate change, are evaluated.

    • Julia Bailey-Serres
    • Jane E. Parker
    • Julian I. Schroeder
    Review Article
  • The processes that control the movement of carbon from microfossils on the seafloor to erupting volcanoes and deep diamonds, in a cycle driven by plate tectonics, are reviewed.

    • Terry Plank
    • Craig E. Manning
    Review Article
  • The authors review recent developments in our understanding of the antitumour effects of the innate immune system and how this system could be harnessed in the clinic.

    • Olivier Demaria
    • Stéphanie Cornen
    • Eric Vivier
    Review Article
  • Progress in integrating atomically thin two-dimensional materials with silicon-based technology is reviewed, together with the associated opportunities and challenges, and a roadmap for future applications is presented.

    • Deji Akinwande
    • Cedric Huyghebaert
    • Frank H. L. Koppens
    Review Article
  • Structural and microscopy studies of gene transcription underpin a model in which phosphorylation controls the shuttling of RNA polymerase II between promoter and gene-body condensates to regulate transcription initiation and elongation.

    • Patrick Cramer
    Review Article
  • Abiotic processes can mimic or alter the biogenic traces of early life but advances in micro- and nanoscale analyses provide evidence that—with geological contextualization—improves our ability to address this issue.

    • Emmanuelle J. Javaux
    Review Article
  • A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    • Stefan G. Hofmann
    Review Article