Reviews & Analysis

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  • Ongoing global warming is likely to cause tipping point thresholds to be passed, but an abrupt system change can still be avoided if the warming is reversed quickly relative to the timescale of the tipping element.

    • Paul D. L. Ritchie
    • Joseph J. Clarke
    • Chris Huntingford
    Review Article
  • The volume of global aquaculture production has tripled since 2000 with positive trends in environmental performance, but the sector faces mounting challenges including pathogen management, pollution, climate change, and increasing dependence on land-based resource systems.

    • Rosamond L. Naylor
    • Ronald W. Hardy
    • Max Troell
    Review Article
  • This Review proposes an interdisciplinary framework for researching climate–society interactions that focuses on the mechanisms through which climate change has influenced societies, and the uncertainties of discerning this influence across different spatiotemporal scales.

    • Dagomar Degroot
    • Kevin Anchukaitis
    • Natale Zappia
    Review Article
  • A Review describes the three key phases that define the origins of modern human ancestry, and highlights the importance of analysing both palaeoanthropological and genomic records to further improve our understanding of our evolutionary history.

    • Anders Bergström
    • Chris Stringer
    • Pontus Skoglund
    Review Article
  • The functional and regulatory aspects of the ‘mitochondrial divisome’ are separated into core and accessory machinery, thus providing a mechanistic understanding of the process of mitochondrial fission.

    • Felix Kraus
    • Krishnendu Roy
    • Michael T. Ryan
    Review Article
  • The factors affecting how and why supernovae occur are discussed, and the current status of core-collapse supernova explosion theory is reviewed.

    • A. Burrows
    • D. Vartanyan
    Review Article
  • This review discusses how single-cell profiling and other technological advances are increasing our understanding of the mechanisms of fibrosis, thereby accelerating the discovery, development and testing of new treatments.

    • Neil C. Henderson
    • Florian Rieder
    • Thomas A. Wynn
    Review Article
  • The mechanisms and origins of fast radio bursts are reviewed in connection with data and insights from the neighbouring fields of gamma-ray bursts and radio pulsars.

    • Bing Zhang
    Review Article
  • The long-term success of area-based conservation—including both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures—after 2020 will depend on governments securing adequate funding and prioritizing biodiversity in land, water and sea management.

    • Sean L. Maxwell
    • Victor Cazalis
    • James E. M. Watson
    Review Article
  • The current state of programmable photonic integrated circuits is discussed, including recent developments in their building blocks, circuit architectures, electronic control and programming strategies, as well as different application spaces.

    • Wim Bogaerts
    • Daniel Pérez
    • Andrea Melloni
    Review Article
  • The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

    • César Muñoz-Fontela
    • William E. Dowling
    • Dan H. Barouch
    Review Article
  • The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

    • Florian Krammer
    Review Article
  • This Review describes the interplay between host genetics, host immunity and the gut microbiome in the modulation of colorectal cancer, and discusses the role of specific bacterial species and metabolites alongside technological advances that will facilitate more in-depth investigation of the microbiome in disease.

    • Alina Janney
    • Fiona Powrie
    • Elizabeth H. Mann
    Review Article
  • NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • K. Jarrod Millman
    • Travis E. Oliphant
    Review Article Open Access
  • Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • Arnold Milstein
    • Li Fei-Fei
    Review Article
  • This Review explores the role of viscoelasticity of tissues and extracellular matrices in cell–matrix interactions and mechanotransduction and the potential utility of viscoelastic biomaterials in regenerative medicine.

    • Ovijit Chaudhuri
    • Justin Cooper-White
    • Vivek B. Shenoy
    Review Article
  • The development and future prospects of prospectively designed multispecific drugs, which have the potential to transform the biopharmaceutical industry by enabling the targeting of currently inaccessible components of the proteome, are reviewed.

    • Raymond J. Deshaies
    Review Article
  • Analyses of the recovery of marine populations, habitats and ecosystems following past conservation interventions indicate that substantial recovery of the abundance, structure and function of marine life could be achieved by 2050 if major pressures, including climate change, are mitigated.

    • Carlos M. Duarte
    • Susana Agusti
    • Boris Worm
    Review Article