Table of Contents

Volume 555 Number 7696 pp285-402

15 March 2018

About the cover

The cover features a false-colour scanning electron microscopy image of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus showing the specialized branches that produce its spores. In this issue, Gordon Brown and his colleagues examine the way in which mammals are able to detect melanin in the cell wall of these fungal spores. They identify a new cell receptor called MelLec that senses DHN-melanin and triggers an immune response which plays a key role in protecting the host against Aspergillus infection. Cover image: Kevin Mackenzie and Mark Stappers

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Books and Arts




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    • Marta Paterlini

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  • Data

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    • João Ramalho-Santos


News & Views



  • The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancersOpen

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    • Barbara C. Worst
    • Joachim Weischenfeldt
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    • Kortine Kleinheinz
    • Vasilisa A. Rudneva
    • Pascal D. Johann
    • Gnana Prakash Balasubramanian
    • Maia Segura-Wang
    • Sebastian Brabetz
    • Sebastian Bender
    • Barbara Hutter
    • Dominik Sturm
    • Elke Pfaff
    • Daniel Hübschmann
    • Gideon Zipprich
    • Michael Heinold
    • Jürgen Eils
    • Christian Lawerenz
    • Serap Erkek
    • Sander Lambo
    • Sebastian Waszak
    • Claudia Blattmann
    • Arndt Borkhardt
    • Michaela Kuhlen
    • Angelika Eggert
    • Simone Fulda
    • Manfred Gessler
    • Jenny Wegert
    • Roland Kappler
    • Daniel Baumhoer
    • Stefan Burdach
    • Renate Kirschner-Schwabe
    • Udo Kontny
    • Andreas E. Kulozik
    • Dietmar Lohmann
    • Simone Hettmer
    • Cornelia Eckert
    • Stefan Bielack
    • Michaela Nathrath
    • Charlotte Niemeyer
    • Günther H. Richter
    • Johannes Schulte
    • Reiner Siebert
    • Frank Westermann
    • Jan J. Molenaar
    • Gilles Vassal
    • Hendrik Witt
    • ICGC PedBrain-Seq Project
    • ICGC MMML-Seq Project
    • Birgit Burkhardt
    • Christian P. Kratz
    • Olaf Witt
    • Cornelis M. van Tilburg
    • Christof M. Kramm
    • Gudrun Fleischhack
    • Uta Dirksen
    • Stefan Rutkowski
    • Michael Frühwald
    • Katja von Hoff
    • Stephan Wolf
    • Thomas Klingebiel
    • Ewa Koscielniak
    • Pablo Landgraf
    • Jan Koster
    • Adam C. Resnick
    • Jinghui Zhang
    • Yanling Liu
    • Xin Zhou
    • Angela J. Waanders
    • Danny A. Zwijnenburg
    • Pichai Raman
    • Benedikt Brors
    • Ursula D. Weber
    • Paul A. Northcott
    • Kristian W. Pajtler
    • Marcel Kool
    • Rosario M. Piro
    • Jan O. Korbel
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    The high-resolution structure of the entire eukaryotic oligosaccharyltransferase complex is determined, revealing the role of membrane lipids in mediating inter-subunit interactions, and the mechanism by which the complex enables protein N-glycosylation.


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    • Branimir Sesar
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  • High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a solid-state spin sensor

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    • Dominik B. Bucher
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    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the scale of single cells is achieved by combining a magnetometer consisting of an ensemble of nitrogen–vacancy centres with a narrowband synchronized readout protocol.

  • Altruism in a volatile world

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    • Andrew D. Higginson
    • Andrew N. Radford
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  • Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers

    • Zhenling Cui
    • Hongyan Zhang
    • Xinping Chen
    • Chaochun Zhang
    • Wenqi Ma
    • Chengdong Huang
    • Weifeng Zhang
    • Guohua Mi
    • Yuxin Miao
    • Xiaolin Li
    • Qiang Gao
    • Jianchang Yang
    • Zhaohui Wang
    • Youliang Ye
    • Shiwei Guo
    • Jianwei Lu
    • Jianliang Huang
    • Shihua Lv
    • Yixiang Sun
    • Yuanying Liu
    • Xianlong Peng
    • Jun Ren
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    • Xiaojun Shi
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    • Zhaohui Liu
    • Ning Cao
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    • Hao Ying
    • Yulong Yin
    • Xiaoqiang Jiao
    • Qingsong Zhang
    • Mingsheng Fan
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    • Zhengxia Dou

    Millions of Chinese smallholder farmers were persuaded to adopt enhanced management practices, which led to a greater yield, reduced nitrogen fertilizer use and improved environmental performance throughout China.

  • Pan-cancer genome and transcriptome analyses of 1,699 paediatric leukaemias and solid tumoursOpen

    • Xiaotu Ma
    • Yu Liu
    • Yanling Liu
    • Ludmil B. Alexandrov
    • Michael N. Edmonson
    • Charles Gawad
    • Xin Zhou
    • Yongjin Li
    • Michael C. Rusch
    • John Easton
    • Robert Huether
    • Veronica Gonzalez-Pena
    • Mark R. Wilkinson
    • Leandro C. Hermida
    • Sean Davis
    • Edgar Sioson
    • Stanley Pounds
    • Xueyuan Cao
    • Rhonda E. Ries
    • Zhaoming Wang
    • Xiang Chen
    • Li Dong
    • Sharon J. Diskin
    • Malcolm A. Smith
    • Jaime M. Guidry Auvil
    • Paul S. Meltzer
    • Ching C. Lau
    • Elizabeth J. Perlman
    • John M. Maris
    • Soheil Meshinchi
    • Stephen P. Hunger
    • Daniela S. Gerhard
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    Analysis of the genomes, exomes and transcriptomes of 1,699 childhood cancers identifies 142 driver genes.

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  • Human hippocampal neurogenesis drops sharply in children to undetectable levels in adults

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    • Arantxa Cebrian-Silla
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    • Dashi Qi
    • Kevin W. Kelley
    • David James
    • Simone Mayer
    • Julia Chang
    • Kurtis I. Auguste
    • Edward F. Chang
    • Antonio J. Gutierrez
    • Arnold R. Kriegstein
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    • Michael C. Oldham
    • Eric J. Huang
    • Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
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    • Arturo Alvarez-Buylla

    Recruitment of young neurons to the hippocampus decreases rapidly during the first years of life, and neurogenesis does not continue, or is extremely rare, in the adult human brain.

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  • Recognition of DHN-melanin by a C-type lectin receptor is required for immunity to Aspergillus

    • Mark H. T. Stappers
    • Alexandra E. Clark
    • Vishukumar Aimanianda
    • Stefan Bidula
    • Delyth M. Reid
    • Patawee Asamaphan
    • Sarah E. Hardison
    • Ivy M. Dambuza
    • Isabel Valsecchi
    • Bernhard Kerscher
    • Anthony Plato
    • Carol A. Wallace
    • Raif Yuecel
    • Betty Hebecker
    • Maria da Glória Teixeira Sousa
    • Cristina Cunha
    • Yan Liu
    • Ten Feizi
    • Axel A. Brakhage
    • Kyung J. Kwon-Chung
    • Neil A. R. Gow
    • Matteo Zanda
    • Monica Piras
    • Chiara Zanato
    • Martin Jaeger
    • Mihai G. Netea
    • Frank L. van de Veerdonk
    • João F. Lacerda
    • António Campos
    • Agostinho Carvalho
    • Janet A. Willment
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    The C-type lectin receptor MelLec recognizes DHN-melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus and other DHN-melanized fungi, revealing an important role for this receptor in antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.

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  • EWS–FLI1 increases transcription to cause R-loops and block BRCA1 repair in Ewing sarcoma

    • Aparna Gorthi
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    • Liesl A. Lawrence
    • Elicia Goodale
    • Amanda Balboni Iniguez
    • Xavier Bernard
    • V. Pragathi Masamsetti
    • Sydney Roston
    • Elizabeth R. Lawlor
    • Jeffrey A. Toretsky
    • Kimberly Stegmaier
    • Stephen L. Lessnick
    • Yidong Chen
    • Alexander J. R. Bishop

    The EWS–FLI1 fusion protein, expressed in Ewing sarcoma, increases global transcription, causes accumulation of R loops and replication stress, and impairs BRCA1-mediated repair.

  • Epigenetic reprogramming enables the transition from primordial germ cell to gonocyte

    • Peter W. S. Hill
    • Harry G. Leitch
    • Cristina E. Requena
    • Zhiyi Sun
    • Rachel Amouroux
    • Monica Roman-Trufero
    • Malgorzata Borkowska
    • Jolyon Terragni
    • Romualdas Vaisvila
    • Sarah Linnett
    • Hakan Bagci
    • Gopuraja Dharmalingham
    • Vanja Haberle
    • Boris Lenhard
    • Yu Zheng
    • Sriharsa Pradhan
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    Gonadal germline epigenetic reprogramming involves an interplay between DNA methylation, the polycomb complex and Tet1 in both DNA methylation dependent and independent roles, to ensure the activation of a specific subset of genes critical for progression of gametogenesis.

  • Gating mechanisms of acid-sensing ion channels

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    X-ray and cryo-electron microscopy structures of the acid-sensing ion channel ASIC1a reveal the molecular mechanisms of channel gating and desensitization.