Table of Contents

Volume 554 Number 7691 pp145-264

8 February 2018

About the cover

The cover shows a model of a solar eruption in progress. In this week's issue, Tahar Amari and his colleagues suggest that one phenomenon could control the nature and behaviour of all such eruptions. There are two types of eruption: eruptive, which result in coronal mass ejections, and confined, which do not. The exact origin of confined eruptions has been hotly debated between two alternatives: topological complexity in the magnetic structure above the Sun's surface, or an unstable twisted magnetic flux rope. Amari and his team show that the latter process is more likely. To study this, the researchers focused on an eruption that took place in October 2014, predicting its evolution using a two-stage model. Their work reveals a strong multilayer magnetic cage (orange) in which a twisted flux rope (blue) develops. The magnetic energy of the rope increases over the course of several hours before the eruption, but is still not enough to break all of the layers of the cage. However, the twist in the rope is enough to trigger an instability that results in partial destruction of the cage. The resistance of the cage to the assault from the rope determines the type and amount of energy released in the eruption. If the rope is stronger than the cage and can break free, the result is eruptive; if the cage is stronger than the rope, the eruption is confined. Understanding the conditions that lead to solar eruptions may help to predict the events that might affect satellites, communications and ground-based power generation. Cover image: Tahar Amari/Centre de Physique Théorique, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique

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Brief Communication Arising

  • Holen et al. reply

    • Steven R. Holen
    • Thomas A. Deméré
    • Daniel C. Fisher
    • Richard Fullagar
    • James B. Paces
    • George T. Jefferson
    • Jared M. Beeton
    • Richard A. Cerutti
    • Adam N. Rountrey
    • Lawrence Vescera
    • Kathleen A. Holen


  • Biomechanics of predator–prey arms race in lion, zebra, cheetah and impala

    • Alan M. Wilson
    • Tatjana Y. Hubel
    • Simon D. Wilshin
    • John C. Lowe
    • Maja Lorenc
    • Oliver P. Dewhirst
    • Hattie L. A. Bartlam-Brooks
    • Rebecca Diack
    • Emily Bennitt
    • Krystyna A. Golabek
    • Roger C. Woledge
    • J. Weldon McNutt
    • Nancy A. Curtin
    • Timothy G. West

    Analysis and modelling of locomotor characteristics of two pursuit predator–prey pairs show that hunts at lower speeds enable prey to use their maximum manoeuvring capacity and favour prey survival.

    See also
  • HER kinase inhibition in patients with HER2- and HER3-mutant cancers

    • David M. Hyman
    • Sarina A. Piha-Paul
    • Helen Won
    • Jordi Rodon
    • Cristina Saura
    • Geoffrey I. Shapiro
    • Dejan Juric
    • David I. Quinn
    • Victor Moreno
    • Bernard Doger
    • Ingrid A. Mayer
    • Valentina Boni
    • Emiliano Calvo
    • Sherene Loi
    • Albert C. Lockhart
    • Joseph P. Erinjeri
    • Maurizio Scaltriti
    • Gary A. Ulaner
    • Juber Patel
    • Jiabin Tang
    • Hannah Beer
    • S. Duygu Selcuklu
    • Aphrothiti J. Hanrahan
    • Nancy Bouvier
    • Myra Melcer
    • Rajmohan Murali
    • Alison M. Schram
    • Lillian M. Smyth
    • Komal Jhaveri
    • Bob T. Li
    • Alexander Drilon
    • James J. Harding
    • Gopa Iyer
    • Barry S. Taylor
    • Michael F. Berger
    • Richard E. Cutler Jr
    • Feng Xu
    • Anna Butturini
    • Lisa D. Eli
    • Grace Mann
    • Cynthia Farrell
    • Alshad S. Lalani
    • Richard P. Bryce
    • Carlos L. Arteaga
    • Funda Meric-Bernstam
    • José Baselga
    • David B. Solit

    In a basket trial design, the efficacy of the pan-HER kinase inhibitor neratinib is tested in patients with 21 different tumour types, and responses are determined by mutation and tissue type, and are restricted to HER2-mutant cancers.

    See also
  • Cryo-EM shows how dynactin recruits two dyneins for faster movement

    • Linas Urnavicius
    • Clinton K. Lau
    • Mohamed M. Elshenawy
    • Edgar Morales-Rios
    • Carina Motz
    • Ahmet Yildiz
    • Andrew P. Carter

    Cryo-electron microscopy and single-molecule studies reveal that the adaptors BICDR1 and HOOK3 recruit two dynein molecules to dynactin and thereby increase the force and speed of the dynein–dynactin microtubule motor.


  • A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817

    • K. P. Mooley
    • E. Nakar
    • K. Hotokezaka
    • G. Hallinan
    • A. Corsi
    • D. A. Frail
    • A. Horesh
    • T. Murphy
    • E. Lenc
    • D. L. Kaplan
    • K. De
    • D. Dobie
    • P. Chandra
    • A. Deller
    • O. Gottlieb
    • M. M. Kasliwal
    • S. R. Kulkarni
    • S. T. Myers
    • S. Nissanke
    • T. Piran
    • C. Lynch
    • V. Bhalerao
    • S. Bourke
    • K. W. Bannister
    • L. P. Singer

    The observed electromagnetic emission from GW170817 suggests that a ‘cocoon’ of mildly relativistic material was released as a jet transferred its energy to the neutron-rich dynamical ejecta from the merger.

    See also
  • Magnetic cage and rope as the key for solar eruptions

    • Tahar Amari
    • Aurélien Canou
    • Jean-Jacques Aly
    • Francois Delyon
    • Fréderic Alauzet

    Measurements and modelling of a large confined eruption on the Sun show that its evolution is controlled by a multilayer magnetic cage containing a twisted flux rope, which can sometimes be ejective.

  • Experimental observation of Bethe strings

    • Zhe Wang
    • Jianda Wu
    • Wang Yang
    • Anup Kumar Bera
    • Dmytro Kamenskyi
    • A. T. M. Nazmul Islam
    • Shenglong Xu
    • Joseph Matthew Law
    • Bella Lake
    • Congjun Wu
    • Alois Loidl

    Many-body two- and three-string states are realized experimentally in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg–Ising chain SrCo2V2O8 in strong longitudinal magnetic fields.

  • Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    • Jianwei Song
    • Chaoji Chen
    • Shuze Zhu
    • Mingwei Zhu
    • Jiaqi Dai
    • Upamanyu Ray
    • Yiju Li
    • Yudi Kuang
    • Yongfeng Li
    • Nelson Quispe
    • Yonggang Yao
    • Amy Gong
    • Ulrich H. Leiste
    • Hugh A. Bruck
    • J. Y. Zhu
    • Azhar Vellore
    • Heng Li
    • Marilyn L. Minus
    • Zheng Jia
    • Ashlie Martini
    • Teng Li
    • Liangbing Hu

    A process is described for the transformation of bulk wood into a low-cost, strong, tough, lightweight structural material, by the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose followed by hot-pressing to densify the natural wood.

    See also
  • Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions

    • Jessica Jewell
    • David McCollum
    • Johannes Emmerling
    • Christoph Bertram
    • David E. H. J. Gernaat
    • Volker Krey
    • Leonidas Paroussos
    • Loïc Berger
    • Kostas Fragkiadakis
    • Ilkka Keppo
    • Nawfal Saadi
    • Massimo Tavoni
    • Detlef van Vuuren
    • Vadim Vinichenko
    • Keywan Riahi

    Contrary to the hopes of policymakers, fossil fuel subsidy removal would have only a small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030.

    See also
  • Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

    • Li-Min Lu
    • Ling-Feng Mao
    • Tuo Yang
    • Jian-Fei Ye
    • Bing Liu
    • Hong-Lei Li
    • Miao Sun
    • Joseph T. Miller
    • Sarah Mathews
    • Hai-Hua Hu
    • Yan-Ting Niu
    • Dan-Xiao Peng
    • You-Hua Chen
    • Stephen A. Smith
    • Min Chen
    • Kun-Li Xiang
    • Chi-Toan Le
    • Viet-Cuong Dang
    • An-Ming Lu
    • Pamela S. Soltis
    • Douglas E. Soltis
    • Jian-Hua Li
    • Zhi-Duan Chen

    A dated phylogeny and spatial distribution data for Chinese angiosperms show that eastern China has tended to act as a refugium for older taxa whereas western China has acted as a centre for their evolutionary diversification.

  • Enhancer redundancy provides phenotypic robustness in mammalian development

    • Marco Osterwalder
    • Iros Barozzi
    • Virginie Tissières
    • Yoko Fukuda-Yuzawa
    • Brandon J. Mannion
    • Sarah Y. Afzal
    • Elizabeth A. Lee
    • Yiwen Zhu
    • Ingrid Plajzer-Frick
    • Catherine S. Pickle
    • Momoe Kato
    • Tyler H. Garvin
    • Quan T. Pham
    • Anne N. Harrington
    • Jennifer A. Akiyama
    • Veena Afzal
    • Javier Lopez-Rios
    • Diane E. Dickel
    • Axel Visel
    • Len A. Pennacchio

    Gene enhancer knockout phenotypes and analysis of enhancer activity patterns show that developmental genes are regulated by multiple redundant enhancers in mouse embryos.

  • High performance plasma amyloid-β biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

    • Akinori Nakamura
    • Naoki Kaneko
    • Victor L. Villemagne
    • Takashi Kato
    • James Doecke
    • Vincent Doré
    • Chris Fowler
    • Qiao-Xin Li
    • Ralph Martins
    • Christopher Rowe
    • Taisuke Tomita
    • Katsumi Matsuzaki
    • Kenji Ishii
    • Kazunari Ishii
    • Yutaka Arahata
    • Shinichi Iwamoto
    • Kengo Ito
    • Koichi Tanaka
    • Colin L. Masters
    • Katsuhiko Yanagisawa

    Measurement of human plasma amyloid-β biomarkers using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry reliably predicts individual brain amyloid-β status and has potential clinical utility.


  • Corrigendum: Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early-stage lung cancer evolution

    • Christopher Abbosh
    • Nicolai J. Birkbak
    • Gareth A. Wilson
    • Mariam Jamal-Hanjani
    • Tudor Constantin
    • Raheleh Salari
    • John Le Quesne
    • David A. Moore
    • Selvaraju Veeriah
    • Rachel Rosenthal
    • Teresa Marafioti
    • Eser Kirkizlar
    • Thomas B. K. Watkins
    • Nicholas McGranahan
    • Sophia Ward
    • Luke Martinson
    • Joan Riley
    • Francesco Fraioli
    • Maise Al Bakir
    • Eva Grönroos
    • Francisco Zambrana
    • Raymondo Endozo
    • Wenya Linda Bi
    • Fiona M. Fennessy
    • Nicole Sponer
    • Diana Johnson
    • Joanne Laycock
    • Seema Shafi
    • Justyna Czyzewska-Khan
    • Andrew Rowan
    • Tim Chambers
    • Nik Matthews
    • Samra Turajlic
    • Crispin Hiley
    • Siow Ming Lee
    • Martin D. Forster
    • Tanya Ahmad
    • Mary Falzon
    • Elaine Borg
    • David Lawrence
    • Martin Hayward
    • Shyam Kolvekar
    • Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos
    • Sam M. Janes
    • Ricky Thakrar
    • Asia Ahmed
    • Fiona Blackhall
    • Yvonne Summers
    • Dina Hafez
    • Ashwini Naik
    • Apratim Ganguly
    • Stephanie Kareht
    • Rajesh Shah
    • Leena Joseph
    • Anne Marie Quinn
    • Phil A. Crosbie
    • Babu Naidu
    • Gary Middleton
    • Gerald Langman
    • Simon Trotter
    • Marianne Nicolson
    • Hardy Remmen
    • Keith Kerr
    • Mahendran Chetty
    • Lesley Gomersall
    • Dean A. Fennell
    • Apostolos Nakas
    • Sridhar Rathinam
    • Girija Anand
    • Sajid Khan
    • Peter Russell
    • Veni Ezhil
    • Babikir Ismail
    • Melanie Irvin-Sellers
    • Vineet Prakash
    • Jason F. Lester
    • Malgorzata Kornaszewska
    • Richard Attanoos
    • Haydn Adams
    • Helen Davies
    • Dahmane Oukrif
    • Ayse U. Akarca
    • John A. Hartley
    • Helen L. Lowe
    • Sara Lock
    • Natasha Iles
    • Harriet Bell
    • Yenting Ngai
    • Greg Elgar
    • Zoltan Szallasi
    • Roland F. Schwarz
    • Javier Herrero
    • Aengus Stewart
    • Sergio A. Quezada
    • Karl S. Peggs
    • Peter Van Loo
    • Caroline Dive
    • C. Jimmy Lin
    • Matthew Rabinowitz
    • Hugo J. W. L. Aerts
    • Allan Hackshaw
    • Jacqui A. Shaw
    • Bernhard G. Zimmermann
    • Charles Swanton