Table of Contents

Volume 553 Number 7686 pp6-114

4 January 2018

About the cover

The ability to monitor microbial populations within the gut and other body organs poses significant challenges. In this issue, Mikhail Shapiro and his colleagues tackle this problem and reveal a technique that allows bacteria to be imaged deep inside the body using ultrasound. To achieve this, the team created genetically modified bacteria that express acoustic reporter genes. These genes encode components of gas vesicles — gas-filled nanostructures normally used by water-dwelling photosynthetic organisms to control their buoyancy. These gas vesicles scatter sound waves and so can be detected by ultrasound. The researchers show that populations of modified Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can be imaged non-invasively within the gastrointestinal tract and in tumours, offering a potential route for studying the microbiome and monitoring cancer progression and therapy. Image: Barth van Rossum for Caltech

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    • José M. Martín-Durán
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    • Aina Børve
    • Henrike Semmler Lê
    • Anlaug Furu
    • Johanna Taylor Cannon
    • Ulf Jondelius
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    In bilaterian animals, the final configurations of central nervous systems seem unrelated to neuroectodermal patterning systems, so it is likely that the various architectures of the ventral nerve cords evolved convergently, many times.

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  • Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history

    • D. P. Marrone
    • J. S. Spilker
    • C. C. Hayward
    • J. D. Vieira
    • M. Aravena
    • M. L. N. Ashby
    • M. B. Bayliss
    • M. Béthermin
    • M. Brodwin
    • M. S. Bothwell
    • J. E. Carlstrom
    • S. C. Chapman
    • Chian-Chou Chen
    • T. M. Crawford
    • D. J. M. Cunningham
    • C. De Breuck
    • C. D. Fassnacht
    • A. H. Gonzalez
    • T. R. Greve
    • Y. D. Hezaveh
    • K. Lacaille
    • K. C. Litke
    • S. Lower
    • J. Ma
    • M. Malkan
    • T. B. Miller
    • W. R. Morningstar
    • E. J. Murphy
    • D. Narayanan
    • K. A. Phadke
    • K. M. Rotermund
    • J. Sreevani
    • B. Stalder
    • A. A. Stark
    • M. L. Strandet
    • M. Tang
    • A. Weiß

    Two extremely massive galaxies are seen 800 million years after the Big Bang, showing the rapid growth of early structure and marking the most massive halo known in that era.

  • Perovskite nickelates as electric-field sensors in salt water

    • Zhen Zhang
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    • Feizhou He
    • Chongzhao Wu
    • Jiaxin Zhu
    • Yifei Sun
    • Koushik Ramadoss
    • Stephen S. Nonnenmann
    • Nanfang Yu
    • Riccardo Comin
    • Karin M. Rabe
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    • Shriram Ramanathan

    Application of an electric field changes the transport and optical properties of samarium nickelate submerged in water, making it a suitable passive sensor of weak electric fields in salt water.

  • Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass

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    Analyses of potential and actual biomass stocks indicate that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change.

  • Sooty mangabey genome sequence provides insight into AIDS resistance in a natural SIV hostOpen

    • David Palesch
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    Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of immune-related genes of Cercocebus atys and Macaca mulatta identify candidate genes, such as ICAM2 and TLR4, that may explain the AIDS resistance of C. atys.

  • Cyclin D–CDK4 kinase destabilizes PD-L1 via cullin 3–SPOP to control cancer immune surveillance

    • Jinfang Zhang
    • Xia Bu
    • Haizhen Wang
    • Yasheng Zhu
    • Yan Geng
    • Naoe Taira Nihira
    • Yuyong Tan
    • Yanpeng Ci
    • Fei Wu
    • Xiangpeng Dai
    • Jianping Guo
    • Yu-Han Huang
    • Caoqi Fan
    • Shancheng Ren
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    • Gordon J. Freeman
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    Abundance of PD-L1, the ligand of the anti-cancer immunotherapy target PD-1, is negatively regulated by poly-ubiquitination via the cyclin D–CDK4/cullin 3–SPOP axis and PD-1 blockade treatment in mice improved survival when combined with CDK4/6 inhibitors.

  • Senescence-associated reprogramming promotes cancer stemness

    • Maja Milanovic
    • Dorothy N. Y. Fan
    • Dimitri Belenki
    • J. Henry M. Däbritz
    • Zhen Zhao
    • Yong Yu
    • Jan R. Dörr
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    • Ines A. Monteiro Barbosa
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    • Marlen Metzner
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    • Andreas Trumpp
    • Bernd Dörken
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    • Hinrich Gronemeyer
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    • Gunnar Dittmar
    • Soyoung Lee
    • Clemens A. Schmitt

    Cellular senescence induced by chemotherapy leads to the acquisition of stemness in cancer cells, which results in enhanced tumour-promoting capacity after forced release or spontaneous escape from the senescent cell-cycle arrest.

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  • Therapeutic targeting of ependymoma as informed by oncogenic enhancer profiling

    • Stephen C. Mack
    • Kristian W. Pajtler
    • Lukas Chavez
    • Konstantin Okonechnikov
    • Kelsey C. Bertrand
    • Xiuxing Wang
    • Serap Erkek
    • Alexander Federation
    • Anne Song
    • Christine Lee
    • Xin Wang
    • Laura McDonald
    • James J. Morrow
    • Alina Saiakhova
    • Patrick Sin-Chan
    • Qiulian Wu
    • Kulandaimanuvel Antony Michaelraj
    • Tyler E. Miller
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    • Marina Ryzhova
    • Livia Garzia
    • Laura Donovan
    • Stephen Dombrowski
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    • Betty Luu
    • Claudia L. L. Valentim
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    Super enhancers regulate oncogenes and other molecular targets in ependymomas, and identification of these genes provides potential therapeutic targets.

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    • Xiaoqing Cai
    • Hui Zhang
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    The crystal structure of the full-length glucagon receptor in complex with a glucagon analogue NNC1702 reveals how the peptide ligand interacts with its target and shows the conformational changes required for receptor activation.