Table of Contents

Volume 546 Number 7660 pp575-696

29 June 2017

About the cover

Droplets form in atmospheric clouds through heterogeneous nucleation on aerosol particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei. Spontaneous activation of these nuclei depends on the interplay between two factors: the Raoult effect and the Kelvin effect. In the Raoult effect, activation potential increases as solute concentration rises or as water activation decreases. In the Kelvin effect, activation potential decreases as droplet size shrinks, and increases as surface tension is lowered. It is generally thought that any lowering of particle surface tension induced by organic molecules would be cancelled out by a simultaneous reduction in the Raoult effect with little overall effect on cloud-droplet activation. However, in this issue, Colin O’Dowd and his colleagues show that in the atmosphere, surfactant molecules can lower surface tension in such a way that its effect on water uptake prevails over any changes in the Raoult effect, leading to a large increase in the concentration of cloud droplets. The authors suggest that this should have implications for the representation of cloud formation processes in climate models. Cover image:

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Technology Feature

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Brief Communications Arising



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    A combination of microprism-based cellular imaging to monitor insular cortex visual cue responses in behaving mice across hunger states with circuit mapping and manipulations reveals a neural basis for state-specific biased processing of motivationally relevant cues.

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    • Luis Romero Cortés
    • Stefania Sciara
    • Benjamin Wetzel
    • Yanbing Zhang
    • Alfonso Cino
    • Sai T. Chu
    • Brent E. Little
    • David J. Moss
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  • Surface tension prevails over solute effect in organic-influenced cloud droplet activation

    • Jurgita Ovadnevaite
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    • Greg Roberts
    • Darius Ceburnis
    • Stefano Decesari
    • Matteo Rinaldi
    • Natasha Hodas
    • Maria Cristina Facchini
    • John H. Seinfeld
    • Colin O’ Dowd

    A phase-separation mechanism is proposed for the dominance of the surface tension effect over the solute effect in the observed activation of ultrafine cloud condensation nuclei.

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    • William H. Hildebrand
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    • Valina L. Dawson
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    • Carla Oseroff
    • John Pham
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    • Daniela Weiskopf
    • Elizabeth Phillips
    • Simon Mallal
    • Bjoern Peters
    • April Frazier
    • Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn
    • Alessandro Sette

    Epitopes derived from two regions of α-synuclein elicit immune responses in patients with Parkinson’s disease, involving IL-5-secreting CD4+ T cells, as well as IFNγ-secreting CD8+ cytotoxic T cells.

  • Human fetal dendritic cells promote prenatal T-cell immune suppression through arginase-2

    • Naomi McGovern
    • Amanda Shin
    • Gillian Low
    • Donovan Low
    • Kaibo Duan
    • Leong Jing Yao
    • Rasha Msallam
    • Ivy Low
    • Nurhidaya Binte Shadan
    • Hermi R Sumatoh
    • Erin Soon
    • Josephine Lum
    • Esther Mok
    • Sandra Hubert
    • Peter See
    • Edwin Huang Kunxiang
    • Yie Hou Lee
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    • Yiping Fan
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    • Ker-Kan Tan
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    • Xiao-nong Wang
    • Venetia Bigley
    • Matthew Collin
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    • Andreas Schlitzer
    • Michael Poidinger
    • Salvatore Albani
    • Anis Larbi
    • Evan W Newell
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    Prenatal immune suppression is regulated by fetal arginase-2-expressing dendritic cells which respond normally to toll-like receptor stimulation but, in contrast to adult dendritic cells, induce regulatory T cells and repress TNF-α secretion by effector T cells.

  • Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells

    • Shu Zhu
    • Siyuan Ding
    • Penghua Wang
    • Zheng Wei
    • Wen Pan
    • Noah W. Palm
    • Yi Yang
    • Hua Yu
    • Hua-Bing Li
    • Geng Wang
    • Xuqiu Lei
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    • Yujiao Zhao
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