Article

Nature 463, 763-768 (11 February 2010) | doi:10.1038/nature08747; Received 29 August 2009; Accepted 9 December 2009

Genome sequencing and analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

The International Brachypodium Initiative

  1. USDA-ARS Western Regional Research Center, Albany, California 94710, USA.
  2. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit and University of Minnesota, St Paul, Minnesota 55108, USA.
  3. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4501, USA.
  4. HudsonAlpha Institute, Huntsville, Alabama 35806, USA.
  5. US DOE Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.
  6. University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
  7. John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UJ, UK.
  8. University of California Davis, Davis, California 95616, USA.
  9. University of Silesia, 40-032 Katowice, Poland.
  10. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA.
  11. Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99163, USA.
  12. University of Florida, Gainsville, Florida 32611, USA.
  13. Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-0759, USA.
  14. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9292, USA.
  15. USDA-ARS Vegetable Crops Research Unit, Horticulture Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
  16. Helmholtz Zentrum München, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
  17. Technical University München, 80333 München, Germany.
  18. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.
  19. Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Ithaca, New York 14853-1801, USA.
  20. University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland.
  21. MTT Agrifood Research and University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
  22. Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, 96001-970, RS, Brazil.
  23. Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
  24. China Agricultural University, Beijing 10094, China.
  25. Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.
  26. The University of Texas, Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.
  27. Institut National de la Recherché Agronomique UMR 1095, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
  28. University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
  29. National Centre for Genome Resources, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505, USA.
  30. University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.
  31. Joint Bioenergy Institute, Emeryville, California 94720, USA.
  32. University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg DK-1871, Denmark.
  33. USDA-ARS Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, West Virginia 25430, USA.
  34. VIB Department of Plant Systems Biology, VIB and Department of Plant Biotechnology and Genetics, Ghent University, Technologiepark 927, 9052 Gent, Belgium.
  35. Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes du CNRS, Strasbourg 67084, France.
  36. BioEnergy Science Center and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6422, USA.
  37. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
  38. The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
  39. Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR1318, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78026 Versailles cedex, France.
  40. Université de Picardie, Amiens 80039, France.
  41. Plant Gene Expression Center, University of California Berkeley, Albany, California 94710, USA.
  42. Illinois State University and DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Normal, Illinois 61790, USA.
  43. Sabanci University, Istanbul 34956, Turkey.
  44. Unité de Recherche en Génomique Végétale: URGV (INRA-CNRS-UEVE), Evry 91057, France.
  45. USDA-ARS/Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.
  46. Present address: The School of Plant Molecular Systems Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea.
  47. A list of participants and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper.

Correspondence to: Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to J.P.V. (Email: john.vogel@ars.usda.gov) or D.F.G. (Email: david.garvin@ars.usda.gov) or T.C.M. (Email: tmockler@cgrb.oregonstate.edu) or M.W.B. (Email: michael.bevan@bbsrc.ac.uk).

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Three subfamilies of grasses, the Ehrhartoideae, Panicoideae and Pooideae, provide the bulk of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), which is, to our knowledge, the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes shows a precise history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grasses, and establishes a template for analysis of the large genomes of economically important pooid grasses such as wheat. The high-quality genome sequence, coupled with ease of cultivation and transformation, small size and rapid life cycle, will help Brachypodium reach its potential as an important model system for developing new energy and food crops.

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