Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    The milestones that mark the advances in ageing research, the medical, commercial and societal implications of ageing and the different ageing pathways and processes that are associated with ageing are discussed.

    • Judith Campisi
    • , Pankaj Kapahi
    • , Gordon J. Lithgow
    • , Simon Melov
    • , John C. Newman
    •  & Eric Verdin
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    • , Nick Obradovich
    • , Josh Bongard
    • , Jean-François Bonnefon
    • , Cynthia Breazeal
    • , Jacob W. Crandall
    • , Nicholas A. Christakis
    • , Iain D. Couzin
    • , Matthew O. Jackson
    • , Nicholas R. Jennings
    • , Ece Kamar
    • , Isabel M. Kloumann
    • , Hugo Larochelle
    • , David Lazer
    • , Richard McElreath
    • , Alan Mislove
    • , David C. Parkes
    • , Alex ‘Sandy’ Pentland
    • , Margaret E. Roberts
    • , Azim Shariff
    • , Joshua B. Tenenbaum
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Review Article |

    The history and advancements of gravitational-wave astronomy are reviewed and the future of the field is discussed.

    • M. Coleman Miller
    •  & Nicolás Yunes
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses particle injection pumps, which inject suspended and sinking particles to different ocean depths and may sequester as much carbon as the biological gravitational pump.

    • Philip W. Boyd
    • , Hervé Claustre
    • , Marina Levy
    • , David A. Siegel
    •  & Thomas Weber
  • Review Article |

    Combining mobile phone technologies with infectious disease diagnostics can increase patients’ access to testing and treatment and provide public health authorities with new ways to monitor and control outbreaks of infectious diseases.

    • Christopher S. Wood
    • , Michael R. Thomas
    • , Jobie Budd
    • , Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson
    • , Kobus Herbst
    • , Deenan Pillay
    • , Rosanna W. Peeling
    • , Anne M. Johnson
    • , Rachel A. McKendry
    •  & Molly M. Stevens
  • Review Article |

    The current state of the search for dark-matter particles is reviewed, and a broader experimental and theoretical approach is proposed to solve the dark-matter problem.

    • Gianfranco Bertone
    •  & Tim M. P. Tait
  • Review Article |

    By analysing particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions, the phase boundary of strongly interacting matter is located and the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics is elucidated, implying quark–hadron duality.

    • Anton Andronic
    • , Peter Braun-Munzinger
    • , Krzysztof Redlich
    •  & Johanna Stachel
  • Review Article |

    Longer human lives have led to a global burden of late-life disease, and so interventions, including changes to lifestyle and medical innovations, are needed to prevent disease and increase late-life health.

    • Linda Partridge
    • , Joris Deelen
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  • Review Article |

    The rapid development of cell culture and animal models has facilitated a new understanding of ZIKV biology and made it possible to generate multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates, which are advancing through clinical trials.

    • Theodore C. Pierson
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Review Article |

    Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures, their main operation principles and their implementation in integrated photonic devices are reviewed.

    • Pavel Cheben
    • , Robert Halir
    • , Jens H. Schmid
    • , Harry A. Atwater
    •  & David R. Smith
  • Review Article |

    The application and development of machine-learning methods used in experiments at the frontiers of particle physics (such as the Large Hadron Collider) are reviewed, including recent advances based on deep learning.

    • Alexander Radovic
    • , Mike Williams
    • , David Rousseau
    • , Michael Kagan
    • , Daniele Bonacorsi
    • , Alexander Himmel
    • , Adam Aurisano
    • , Kazuhiro Terao
    •  & Taritree Wongjirad
  • Review Article |

    The immense biodiversity of tropical ecosystems is threatened by multiple interacting local and global stressors that can only be addressed by the concerted efforts of grassroots organizations, researchers, national governments and the international community.

    • Jos Barlow
    • , Filipe França
    • , Toby A. Gardner
    • , Christina C. Hicks
    • , Gareth D. Lennox
    • , Erika Berenguer
    • , Leandro Castello
    • , Evan P. Economo
    • , Joice Ferreira
    • , Benoit Guénard
    • , Cecília Gontijo Leal
    • , Victoria Isaac
    • , Alexander C. Lees
    • , Catherine L. Parr
    • , Shaun K. Wilson
    • , Paul J. Young
    •  & Nicholas A. J. Graham
  • Review Article |

    Recent progress in machine learning in the chemical sciences and future directions in this field are discussed.

    • Keith T. Butler
    • , Daniel W. Davies
    • , Hugh Cartwright
    • , Olexandr Isayev
    •  & Aron Walsh
  • Review Article |

    Our current understanding of the spatio-temporal complexity of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon is reviewed and a unifying framework that identifies the key factors for this complexity is proposed.

    • Axel Timmermann
    • , Soon-Il An
    • , Jong-Seong Kug
    • , Fei-Fei Jin
    • , Wenju Cai
    • , Antonietta Capotondi
    • , Kim M. Cobb
    • , Matthieu Lengaigne
    • , Michael J. McPhaden
    • , Malte F. Stuecker
    • , Karl Stein
    • , Andrew T. Wittenberg
    • , Kyung-Sook Yun
    • , Tobias Bayr
    • , Han-Ching Chen
    • , Yoshimitsu Chikamoto
    • , Boris Dewitte
    • , Dietmar Dommenget
    • , Pamela Grothe
    • , Eric Guilyardi
    • , Yoo-Geun Ham
    • , Michiya Hayashi
    • , Sarah Ineson
    • , Daehyun Kang
    • , Sunyong Kim
    • , WonMoo Kim
    • , June-Yi Lee
    • , Tim Li
    • , Jing-Jia Luo
    • , Shayne McGregor
    • , Yann Planton
    • , Scott Power
    • , Harun Rashid
    • , Hong-Li Ren
    • , Agus Santoso
    • , Ken Takahashi
    • , Alexander Todd
    • , Guomin Wang
    • , Guojian Wang
    • , Ruihuang Xie
    • , Woo-Hyun Yang
    • , Sang-Wook Yeh
    • , Jinho Yoon
    • , Elke Zeller
    •  & Xuebin Zhang
  • Review Article |

    Because climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, it is important to identify the physiological thresholds that precipitate the mortality of trees and the mechanisms of recovery after drought.

    • Brendan Choat
    • , Timothy J. Brodribb
    • , Craig R. Brodersen
    • , Remko A. Duursma
    • , Rosana López
    •  & Belinda E. Medlyn
  • Review Article |

    This paper discusses how Antarctic ice has changed over recent decades, and how these changes have been recorded in satellite observations.

    • Andrew Shepherd
    • , Helen Amanda Fricker
    •  & Sinead Louise Farrell
  • Review Article |

    Meta-analysis—the quantitative, scientific synthesis of research results—has been both revolutionary and controversial, with rapid advances and broad implementation resulting in substantial scientific advances, but not without pitfalls.

    • Jessica Gurevitch
    • , Julia Koricheva
    • , Shinichi Nakagawa
    •  & Gavin Stewart
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses recent developments in the combination of organocatalysis and photochemistry for the activation of molecules, which has enabled previously inaccessible reaction pathways and influenced many fields of chemical research.

    • Mattia Silvi
    •  & Paolo Melchiorre
  • Review Article |

    The history and future potential of DNA sequencing, including the development of the underlying technologies and the expansion of its areas of application, are reviewed.

    • Jay Shendure
    • , Shankar Balasubramanian
    • , George M. Church
    • , Walter Gilbert
    • , Jane Rogers
    • , Jeffery A. Schloss
    •  & Robert H. Waterston
  • Review Article |

    A review of the recent developments in reprogramming the genetic code of cells and organisms to include non-canonical amino acids in precisely engineered proteins.

    • Jason W. Chin
  • Review Article |

    Quantum machine learning software could enable quantum computers to learn complex patterns in data more efficiently than classical computers are able to.

    • Jacob Biamonte
    • , Peter Wittek
    • , Nicola Pancotti
    • , Patrick Rebentrost
    • , Nathan Wiebe
    •  & Seth Lloyd
  • Review Article |

    The era of fully fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it; the ways in which modern cryptography is developing solutions are reviewed.

    • Daniel J. Bernstein
    •  & Tanja Lange
  • Review Article |

    To enable a quantum computer to solve practical problems more efficiently than classical computers, quantum programming languages and compilers are required to translate quantum algorithms into machine code; here the currently available software is reviewed.

    • Frederic T. Chong
    • , Diana Franklin
    •  & Margaret Martonosi
  • Review Article |

    An overview of the nature and timescales of stratospheric ozone recovery and the extent to which it can currently be detected.

    • Martyn P. Chipperfield
    • , Slimane Bekki
    • , Sandip Dhomse
    • , Neil R. P. Harris
    • , Birgit Hassler
    • , Ryan Hossaini
    • , Wolfgang Steinbrecht
    • , Rémi Thiéblemont
    •  & Mark Weber
  • Review Article |

    The leading proposals for converting noise-resilient quantum devices from memories to processors are compared, paying attention to the relative resource demands of each.

    • Earl T. Campbell
    • , Barbara M. Terhal
    •  & Christophe Vuillot
  • Review Article |

    Proposals for demonstrating quantum supremacy, when a quantum computer supersedes any possible classical computer at a specific task, are reviewed.

    • Aram W. Harrow
    •  & Ashley Montanaro
  • Review Article |

    The standard model of particle physics is incomplete, but experimental particle decays that occur through a ‘flavour-changing neutral current’ process, which show discrepancies to standard model predictions, may offer hints to the existence of new particles.

    • F. Archilli
    • , M.-O. Bettler
    • , P. Owen
    •  & K. A. Petridis
  • Review Article |

    Recent measurements of B-meson decays in which tau leptons are produced might challenge the standard model assumption that interactions of leptons differ only because of their different masses.

    • Gregory Ciezarek
    • , Manuel Franco Sevilla
    • , Brian Hamilton
    • , Robert Kowalewski
    • , Thomas Kuhr
    • , Vera Lüth
    •  & Yutaro Sato