Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    The long-term success of area-based conservation—including both protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures—after 2020 will depend on governments securing adequate funding and prioritizing biodiversity in land, water and sea management.

    • Sean L. Maxwell
    • , Victor Cazalis
    • , Nigel Dudley
    • , Michael Hoffmann
    • , Ana S. L. Rodrigues
    • , Sue Stolton
    • , Piero Visconti
    • , Stephen Woodley
    • , Naomi Kingston
    • , Edward Lewis
    • , Martine Maron
    • , Bernardo B. N. Strassburg
    • , Amelia Wenger
    • , Harry D. Jonas
    • , Oscar Venter
    •  & James E. M. Watson
  • Review Article |

    The current state of programmable photonic integrated circuits is discussed, including recent developments in their building blocks, circuit architectures, electronic control and programming strategies, as well as different application spaces.

    • Wim Bogaerts
    • , Daniel Pérez
    • , José Capmany
    • , David A. B. Miller
    • , Joyce Poon
    • , Dirk Englund
    • , Francesco Morichetti
    •  & Andrea Melloni
  • Review Article |

    The findings of a World Health Organization expert working group that is developing animal models to test vaccines and therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19, and their relevance for preclinical testing, are reviewed.

    • César Muñoz-Fontela
    • , William E. Dowling
    • , Simon G. P. Funnell
    • , Pierre-S. Gsell
    • , A. Ximena Riveros-Balta
    • , Randy A. Albrecht
    • , Hanne Andersen
    • , Ralph S. Baric
    • , Miles W. Carroll
    • , Marco Cavaleri
    • , Chuan Qin
    • , Ian Crozier
    • , Kai Dallmeier
    • , Leon de Waal
    • , Emmie de Wit
    • , Leen Delang
    • , Erik Dohm
    • , W. Paul Duprex
    • , Darryl Falzarano
    • , Courtney L. Finch
    • , Matthew B. Frieman
    • , Barney S. Graham
    • , Lisa E. Gralinski
    • , Kate Guilfoyle
    • , Bart L. Haagmans
    • , Geraldine A. Hamilton
    • , Amy L. Hartman
    • , Sander Herfst
    • , Suzanne J. F. Kaptein
    • , William B. Klimstra
    • , Ivana Knezevic
    • , Philip R. Krause
    • , Jens H. Kuhn
    • , Roger Le Grand
    • , Mark G. Lewis
    • , Wen-Chun Liu
    • , Pauline Maisonnasse
    • , Anita K. McElroy
    • , Vincent Munster
    • , Nadia Oreshkova
    • , Angela L. Rasmussen
    • , Joana Rocha-Pereira
    • , Barry Rockx
    • , Estefanía Rodríguez
    • , Thomas F. Rogers
    • , Francisco J. Salguero
    • , Michael Schotsaert
    • , Koert J. Stittelaar
    • , Hendrik Jan Thibaut
    • , Chien-Te Tseng
    • , Júlia Vergara-Alert
    • , Martin Beer
    • , Trevor Brasel
    • , Jasper F. W. Chan
    • , Adolfo García-Sastre
    • , Johan Neyts
    • , Stanley Perlman
    • , Douglas S. Reed
    • , Juergen A. Richt
    • , Chad J. Roy
    • , Joaquim Segalés
    • , Seshadri S. Vasan
    • , Ana María Henao-Restrepo
    •  & Dan H. Barouch
  • Review Article |

    The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is reviewed, including an overview of the development process, the different types of vaccine candidate, and data from animal studies as well as phase I and II clinical trials in humans.

    • Florian Krammer
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes the interplay between host genetics, host immunity and the gut microbiome in the modulation of colorectal cancer, and discusses the role of specific bacterial species and metabolites alongside technological advances that will facilitate more in-depth investigation of the microbiome in disease.

    • Alina Janney
    • , Fiona Powrie
    •  & Elizabeth H. Mann
  • Review Article |

    NumPy is the primary array programming library for Python; here its fundamental concepts are reviewed and its evolution into a flexible interoperability layer between increasingly specialized computational libraries is discussed.

    • Charles R. Harris
    • , K. Jarrod Millman
    • , Stéfan J. van der Walt
    • , Ralf Gommers
    • , Pauli Virtanen
    • , David Cournapeau
    • , Eric Wieser
    • , Julian Taylor
    • , Sebastian Berg
    • , Nathaniel J. Smith
    • , Robert Kern
    • , Matti Picus
    • , Stephan Hoyer
    • , Marten H. van Kerkwijk
    • , Matthew Brett
    • , Allan Haldane
    • , Jaime Fernández del Río
    • , Mark Wiebe
    • , Pearu Peterson
    • , Pierre Gérard-Marchant
    • , Kevin Sheppard
    • , Tyler Reddy
    • , Warren Weckesser
    • , Hameer Abbasi
    • , Christoph Gohlke
    •  & Travis E. Oliphant
  • Review Article |

    Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence and low-cost, contactless sensors have given rise to an ambient intelligence that can potentially improve the physical execution of healthcare delivery, if used in a thoughtful manner.

    • Albert Haque
    • , Arnold Milstein
    •  & Li Fei-Fei
  • Review Article |

    This Review explores the role of viscoelasticity of tissues and extracellular matrices in cell–matrix interactions and mechanotransduction and the potential utility of viscoelastic biomaterials in regenerative medicine.

    • Ovijit Chaudhuri
    • , Justin Cooper-White
    • , Paul A. Janmey
    • , David J. Mooney
    •  & Vivek B. Shenoy
  • Review Article |

    The development and future prospects of prospectively designed multispecific drugs, which have the potential to transform the biopharmaceutical industry by enabling the targeting of currently inaccessible components of the proteome, are reviewed.

    • Raymond J. Deshaies
  • Review Article |

    Analyses of the recovery of marine populations, habitats and ecosystems following past conservation interventions indicate that substantial recovery of the abundance, structure and function of marine life could be achieved by 2050 if major pressures, including climate change, are mitigated.

    • Carlos M. Duarte
    • , Susana Agusti
    • , Edward Barbier
    • , Gregory L. Britten
    • , Juan Carlos Castilla
    • , Jean-Pierre Gattuso
    • , Robinson W. Fulweiler
    • , Terry P. Hughes
    • , Nancy Knowlton
    • , Catherine E. Lovelock
    • , Heike K. Lotze
    • , Milica Predragovic
    • , Elvira Poloczanska
    • , Callum Roberts
    •  & Boris Worm
  • Review Article |

    Single-particle spectroscopic techniques that provide insights into the fundamental photophysical properties of functional nanomaterials are reviewed.

    • Jiajia Zhou
    • , Alexey I. Chizhik
    • , Steven Chu
    •  & Dayong Jin
  • Review Article |

    This Review examines inflammatory bowel disease in the context of human genetics studies that help to identify pathways that regulate homeostasis of the mucosal immune system and discusses future prospects for disease-subtype classification and therapeutic intervention.

    • Daniel B. Graham
    •  & Ramnik J. Xavier
  • Review Article |

    The scientific, technical and ethical aspects of using CRISPR technology for therapeutic applications in humans are discussed, highlighting both opportunities and challenges of this technology to treat, cure and prevent genetic disease.

    • Jennifer A. Doudna
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the dynamics between bacteria and bacteriophages could enable the development of phage-based therapies and biotechnological tools and provide insights into the ecology and evolution of these microorganisms.

    • Hannah G. Hampton
    • , Bridget N. J. Watson
    •  & Peter C. Fineran
  • Review Article |

    This Review describes progress in the study of human genetics, in which rapid advances in technology, foundational genomic resources and analytical tools have contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for many rare and common diseases and to preventative and therapeutic strategies for many of these conditions.

    • Melina Claussnitzer
    • , Judy H. Cho
    • , Rory Collins
    • , Nancy J. Cox
    • , Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis
    • , Matthew E. Hurles
    • , Sekar Kathiresan
    • , Eimear E. Kenny
    • , Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • , Daniel G. MacArthur
    • , Kathryn N. North
    • , Sharon E. Plon
    • , Heidi L. Rehm
    • , Neil Risch
    • , Charles N. Rotimi
    • , Jay Shendure
    • , Nicole Soranzo
    •  & Mark I. McCarthy
  • Review Article |

    A Review of studies into insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    • Michael Roden
    •  & Gerald I. Shulman
  • Review Article |

    A review of drug resistance in cancer analyses each biological determinant of resistance separately and discusses existing and new therapeutic strategies to combat the problem as a whole.

    • Neil Vasan
    • , José Baselga
    •  & David M. Hyman
  • Review Article |

    An overview of the effects of vaccines on global morbidity and mortality, vaccine safety issues, and the hurdles involved in proceeding from vaccine discovery to successful implementation.

    • Peter Piot
    • , Heidi J. Larson
    • , Katherine L. O’Brien
    • , John N’kengasong
    • , Edmond Ng
    • , Samba Sow
    •  & Beate Kampmann
  • Review Article |

    Processes for dismantling and recycling lithium-ion battery packs from scrap electric vehicles are outlined.

    • Gavin Harper
    • , Roberto Sommerville
    • , Emma Kendrick
    • , Laura Driscoll
    • , Peter Slater
    • , Rustam Stolkin
    • , Allan Walton
    • , Paul Christensen
    • , Oliver Heidrich
    • , Simon Lambert
    • , Andrew Abbott
    • , Karl Ryder
    • , Linda Gaines
    •  & Paul Anderson
  • Review Article |

    Structural metals enable improved energy efficiency through their reduced mass, higher thermal stability and better mechanical properties; here, methods of improving the sustainability of structural metals, from recycling to contaminant tolerance, are described.

    • Dierk Raabe
    • , C. Cem Tasan
    •  & Elsa A. Olivetti
  • Review Article |

    We need to integrate the knowledge and skills from different disciplines and from communities all over the world to enable effective responses to future epidemics.

    • Juliet Bedford
    • , Jeremy Farrar
    • , Chikwe Ihekweazu
    • , Gagandeep Kang
    • , Marion Koopmans
    •  & John Nkengasong
  • Review Article |

    Genetic strategies for improving the yield and sustainability of agricultural crops, and the resilience of crops in the face of biotic and abiotic stresses contingent on projected climate change, are evaluated.

    • Julia Bailey-Serres
    • , Jane E. Parker
    • , Elizabeth A. Ainsworth
    • , Giles E. D. Oldroyd
    •  & Julian I. Schroeder
  • Review Article |

    The processes that control the movement of carbon from microfossils on the seafloor to erupting volcanoes and deep diamonds, in a cycle driven by plate tectonics, are reviewed.

    • Terry Plank
    •  & Craig E. Manning
  • Review Article |

    The authors review recent developments in our understanding of the antitumour effects of the innate immune system and how this system could be harnessed in the clinic.

    • Olivier Demaria
    • , Stéphanie Cornen
    • , Marc Daëron
    • , Yannis Morel
    • , Ruslan Medzhitov
    •  & Eric Vivier
  • Review Article |

    Progress in integrating atomically thin two-dimensional materials with silicon-based technology is reviewed, together with the associated opportunities and challenges, and a roadmap for future applications is presented.

    • Deji Akinwande
    • , Cedric Huyghebaert
    • , Ching-Hua Wang
    • , Martha I. Serna
    • , Stijn Goossens
    • , Lain-Jong Li
    • , H.-S. Philip Wong
    •  & Frank H. L. Koppens
  • Review Article |

    Structural and microscopy studies of gene transcription underpin a model in which phosphorylation controls the shuttling of RNA polymerase II between promoter and gene-body condensates to regulate transcription initiation and elongation.

    • Patrick Cramer
  • Review Article |

    Abiotic processes can mimic or alter the biogenic traces of early life but advances in micro- and nanoscale analyses provide evidence that—with geological contextualization—improves our ability to address this issue.

    • Emmanuelle J. Javaux
  • Review Article |

    A Review of advances in memory-editing techniques in humans suggests that these techniques are advancing beyond science fiction and could hold promise for translation into clinical practice.

    • Elizabeth A. Phelps
    •  & Stefan G. Hofmann
  • Review Article |

    The milestones that mark the advances in ageing research, the medical, commercial and societal implications of ageing and the different ageing pathways and processes that are associated with ageing are discussed.

    • Judith Campisi
    • , Pankaj Kapahi
    • , Gordon J. Lithgow
    • , Simon Melov
    • , John C. Newman
    •  & Eric Verdin
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the behaviour of the machines powered by artificial intelligence that increasingly mediate our social, cultural, economic and political interactions is essential to our ability to control the actions of these intelligent machines, reap their benefits and minimize their harms.

    • Iyad Rahwan
    • , Manuel Cebrian
    • , Nick Obradovich
    • , Josh Bongard
    • , Jean-François Bonnefon
    • , Cynthia Breazeal
    • , Jacob W. Crandall
    • , Nicholas A. Christakis
    • , Iain D. Couzin
    • , Matthew O. Jackson
    • , Nicholas R. Jennings
    • , Ece Kamar
    • , Isabel M. Kloumann
    • , Hugo Larochelle
    • , David Lazer
    • , Richard McElreath
    • , Alan Mislove
    • , David C. Parkes
    • , Alex ‘Sandy’ Pentland
    • , Margaret E. Roberts
    • , Azim Shariff
    • , Joshua B. Tenenbaum
    •  & Michael Wellman
  • Review Article |

    The history and advancements of gravitational-wave astronomy are reviewed and the future of the field is discussed.

    • M. Coleman Miller
    •  & Nicolás Yunes
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses particle injection pumps, which inject suspended and sinking particles to different ocean depths and may sequester as much carbon as the biological gravitational pump.

    • Philip W. Boyd
    • , Hervé Claustre
    • , Marina Levy
    • , David A. Siegel
    •  & Thomas Weber
  • Review Article |

    Combining mobile phone technologies with infectious disease diagnostics can increase patients’ access to testing and treatment and provide public health authorities with new ways to monitor and control outbreaks of infectious diseases.

    • Christopher S. Wood
    • , Michael R. Thomas
    • , Jobie Budd
    • , Tivani P. Mashamba-Thompson
    • , Kobus Herbst
    • , Deenan Pillay
    • , Rosanna W. Peeling
    • , Anne M. Johnson
    • , Rachel A. McKendry
    •  & Molly M. Stevens
  • Review Article |

    The current state of the search for dark-matter particles is reviewed, and a broader experimental and theoretical approach is proposed to solve the dark-matter problem.

    • Gianfranco Bertone
    •  & Tim M. P. Tait
  • Review Article |

    By analysing particle production in high-energy nuclear collisions, the phase boundary of strongly interacting matter is located and the phase structure of quantum chromodynamics is elucidated, implying quark–hadron duality.

    • Anton Andronic
    • , Peter Braun-Munzinger
    • , Krzysztof Redlich
    •  & Johanna Stachel
  • Review Article |

    Longer human lives have led to a global burden of late-life disease, and so interventions, including changes to lifestyle and medical innovations, are needed to prevent disease and increase late-life health.

    • Linda Partridge
    • , Joris Deelen
    •  & P. Eline Slagboom
  • Review Article |

    Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures, their main operation principles and their implementation in integrated photonic devices are reviewed.

    • Pavel Cheben
    • , Robert Halir
    • , Jens H. Schmid
    • , Harry A. Atwater
    •  & David R. Smith
  • Review Article |

    The rapid development of cell culture and animal models has facilitated a new understanding of ZIKV biology and made it possible to generate multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates, which are advancing through clinical trials.

    • Theodore C. Pierson
    •  & Michael S. Diamond
  • Review Article |

    The application and development of machine-learning methods used in experiments at the frontiers of particle physics (such as the Large Hadron Collider) are reviewed, including recent advances based on deep learning.

    • Alexander Radovic
    • , Mike Williams
    • , David Rousseau
    • , Michael Kagan
    • , Daniele Bonacorsi
    • , Alexander Himmel
    • , Adam Aurisano
    • , Kazuhiro Terao
    •  & Taritree Wongjirad
  • Review Article |

    The immense biodiversity of tropical ecosystems is threatened by multiple interacting local and global stressors that can only be addressed by the concerted efforts of grassroots organizations, researchers, national governments and the international community.

    • Jos Barlow
    • , Filipe França
    • , Toby A. Gardner
    • , Christina C. Hicks
    • , Gareth D. Lennox
    • , Erika Berenguer
    • , Leandro Castello
    • , Evan P. Economo
    • , Joice Ferreira
    • , Benoit Guénard
    • , Cecília Gontijo Leal
    • , Victoria Isaac
    • , Alexander C. Lees
    • , Catherine L. Parr
    • , Shaun K. Wilson
    • , Paul J. Young
    •  & Nicholas A. J. Graham
  • Review Article |

    Recent progress in machine learning in the chemical sciences and future directions in this field are discussed.

    • Keith T. Butler
    • , Daniel W. Davies
    • , Hugh Cartwright
    • , Olexandr Isayev
    •  & Aron Walsh