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Species comparisons using single-cell transcriptomics and accessible chromatin profiling in stem cell-derived cerebral organoids are used to map dynamic gene-regulatory changes that are unique to humans.
Widespread formation of new particles from condensable vapours observed in the tropical upper troposphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei in the lower troposphere, affecting cloud properties.
Characterization of a capillary flow phenomenon termed self-coalescence leads to the development of scalable, compact microfluidic devices that could see application in diagnostics, high-throughput screening and biological assays.
An analogue quantum simulator based on ultracold atoms in optical lattices and cavity quantum electrodynamics is proposed for the solution of quantum chemistry problems and tested numerically for a simple molecule.
A range of SF3B1 mutations promote tumorigenesis through the repression of BRD9, a core component of the non-canonical BAF complex, and correcting BRD9 mis-splicing in these SF3B1-mutant cells suppresses tumour growth.
In high-entropy alloys, atomic-resolution chemical mapping shows that swapping some of the atoms for larger, more electronegative elements results in atomic-scale modulations that produce higher yield strength, excellent strain hardening and ductility.
A ‘click’ reaction is developed for the simple and rapid formation of azides from primary amines, and is used to prepare a library of over 1,200 azides for subsequent use in the existing triazole annulation click reaction.
In humans and mouse models, the mycobiome of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumours is markedly enriched in Malassezia species compared to that of normal pancreas, which implicates these pathogenic fungi in oncogenesis.
Signalling between the transcription factor IRF6 and the kinase RIPK4, in particular the phosphorylation of IRF6 by RIPK4, regulates epidermal differentiation and lipid metabolism, thereby maintaining the function of the epidermal barrier.
CRISPR–Cas9 engineering of the Drosophila Atpα gene (encoding the α-subunit of the sodium pump) is used to study the ability of mutations that evolved independently in several insect orders to confer resistance to keystone plant toxins.
Analyses of transcriptomes from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia identified frequently co-occurring mutations of IDH2 and SRSF2, which functional analyses showed to have distinct and coordinated leukaemogenic effects on the epigenome and RNA splicing.
Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inner kinetochore complex provide insights into the interdependencies of constituent subcomplexes and the mechanism of centromeric nucleosome recognition.
Condensation of interlayer excitons at temperatures above 100 kelvin is demonstrated in a van der Waals heterostructure consisting of two-dimensional atomic double layers of transition metal chalcogenides.
CDC7 inhibition selectively induces senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma cells with TP53 mutations, which enables the selective apoptotic cell death of these senescent cells using inhibitors of mTOR signalling.
Estimates for when critical environmental streamflow limits will be reached—with potentially devastating economic and environmental effects—are obtained using a global model that links groundwater pumping with the groundwater flow to rivers.
Tadpoles of strawberry poison frogs (Oophaga pumilio) are shown to imprint on adult coloration, affecting both male aggression biases and female preferences and setting the stage for speciation by sexual selection.
There are two distinct kinematic populations of globular clusters in Messier 31 (M31, the Andromeda galaxy) with rotation axes perpendicular to each other, suggesting that they arose from merger events separated by billions of years.
An analysis of the B cell receptor repertoire in six immune-mediated diseases reveals that there are substantial differences in clonality, isotype use, class switching and use of the IGHV genes between diseases.
PdMo bimetallene, a highly curved and sub-nanometre-thick nanosheet of a palladium–molybdenum alloy, is an efficient and stable electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions under alkaline conditions.
After the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction event, nannoplankton communities exhibited volatility for 1.8 million years before a more stable community emerged, coinciding with restoration of the carbon cycle and a fully functioning biological pump between the surface and deep sea.
Juxtaposition of region-specific gut spheroids derived from human pluripotent stem cells in the absence of extrinsic factors results in development of segregated hepato-biliary-pancreatic anlages that recapitulate early morphogenetic events.
Globally distributed kimberlites have their origins in a single, homogeneous early Earth reservoir that was subsequently perturbed, probably by subduction along the margins of Pangaea, around 200 million years ago.
X-ray diffraction measurements of solid hydrogen provide crystallographic information for high-pressure phases of hydrogen and transitions between them, suggesting a series of isostructural transitions under compression before band closure and metallization.
A crystal structure of Thermoplasmatales archaeon heliorhodopsin at 2.4 Å resolution shows that it adopts a similar fold to that of type I rhodopsin—despite the low sequence identity—but there are also several marked differences that provide insights into heliorhodopsin function.
Transmission of single-spin and entangled quantum states without the physical displacement of electrons is demonstrated in a quadruple quantum dot array using the Heisenberg exchange interaction and coherent SWAP gates.
Nutrient content analyses of marine finfish and current fisheries landings show that fish have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security by alleviating micronutrient deficiencies in regions where they are prevalent.
17O nuclear magnetic resonance measurements on Sr2RuO4 reveal a drop of the Knight shift in the superconducting state, contradicting previous work and imposing tight constraints on the order parameter symmetry of the system.
A probabilistic computer utilizing probabilistic bits, or p-bits, is implemented with stochastic nanomagnetic devices in a neural-network-inspired electrical circuit operating at room temperature and demonstrates integer factorization up to 945.
Wilderness areas with minimal levels of human disturbance promote the persistence of biodiversity by acting as buffers against species loss, and therefore represent key targets for environmental protection.
Scenarios that model a realistic phase-out of fossil fuels find no substantial near-term increase in the rate of warming, and suggest benefits for climate change mitigation and air quality at essentially all timescales.
Restoring the function of p53 in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma leads to the accumulation of α-ketoglutarate, which increases levels of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine chromatin modification and results in reduced tumour-cell fitness.