Letters

  • Letter |

    Analyses of a global dataset of plant root traits identify an ancestral conservative strategy based on thick roots and mycorrhizal symbiosis, and an evolutionarily more-recent opportunistic strategy of thin roots that efficiently use photosynthetic carbon for soil exploration.

    • Zeqing Ma
    • , Dali Guo
    • , Xingliang Xu
    • , Mingzhen Lu
    • , Richard D. Bardgett
    • , David M. Eissenstat
    • , M. Luke McCormack
    •  & Lars O. Hedin
  • Letter |

    Polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide is used to fabricate a multi-terminal device combining a memristor and a transistor, which can mimic biological neurons with multiple synapses for neuromorphic computing applications.

    • Vinod K. Sangwan
    • , Hong-Sub Lee
    • , Hadallia Bergeron
    • , Itamar Balla
    • , Megan E. Beck
    • , Kan-Sheng Chen
    •  & Mark C. Hersam
  • Letter |

    An approach for the direct electrophilic C–H fluorination of arenes is reported, using a palladium catalyst and mild fluorinating reagents.

    • Kumiko Yamamoto
    • , Jiakun Li
    • , Jeffrey A. O. Garber
    • , Julian D. Rolfes
    • , Gregory B. Boursalian
    • , Jannik C. Borghs
    • , Christophe Genicot
    • , Jérôme Jacq
    • , Maurice van Gastel
    • , Frank Neese
    •  & Tobias Ritter
  • Letter |

    ‘Molecular anvil’ molecules consisting of a compressible mechanophore and incompressible ligands react under hydrostatic pressure to produce elemental metal via an unexplored mechanism.

    • Hao Yan
    • , Fan Yang
    • , Ding Pan
    • , Yu Lin
    • , J. Nathan Hohman
    • , Diego Solis-Ibarra
    • , Fei Hua Li
    • , Jeremy E. P. Dahl
    • , Robert M. K. Carlson
    • , Boryslav A. Tkachenko
    • , Andrey A. Fokin
    • , Peter R. Schreiner
    • , Giulia Galli
    • , Wendy L. Mao
    • , Zhi-Xun Shen
    •  & Nicholas A. Melosh
  • Letter |

    The structure of huntingtin in complex with an interactor is determined to an overall resolution of 4 Å, paving the way for improved understanding of the cellular functions of this protein.

    • Qiang Guo
    • , Bin Huang
    • , Jingdong Cheng
    • , Manuel Seefelder
    • , Tatjana Engler
    • , Günter Pfeifer
    • , Patrick Oeckl
    • , Markus Otto
    • , Franziska Moser
    • , Melanie Maurer
    • , Alexander Pautsch
    • , Wolfgang Baumeister
    • , Rubén Fernández-Busnadiego
    •  & Stefan Kochanek
  • Letter |

    The discovery of a newly born type IIb supernova reveals a rapid brightening at optical wavelengths that corresponds to the shock-breakout phase of the explosion.

    • M. C. Bersten
    • , G. Folatelli
    • , F. García
    • , S. D. Van Dyk
    • , O. G. Benvenuto
    • , M. Orellana
    • , V. Buso
    • , J. L. Sánchez
    • , M. Tanaka
    • , K. Maeda
    • , A. V. Filippenko
    • , W. Zheng
    • , T. G. Brink
    • , S. B. Cenko
    • , T. de Jaeger
    • , S. Kumar
    • , T. J. Moriya
    • , K. Nomoto
    • , D. A. Perley
    • , I. Shivvers
    •  & N. Smith
  • Letter |

    The structure of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) with its biased agonist exendin-P5 sheds light on both receptor activation and the mechanism of biased agonism.

    • Yi-Lynn Liang
    • , Maryam Khoshouei
    • , Alisa Glukhova
    • , Sebastian G. B. Furness
    • , Peishen Zhao
    • , Lachlan Clydesdale
    • , Cassandra Koole
    • , Tin T. Truong
    • , David M. Thal
    • , Saifei Lei
    • , Mazdak Radjainia
    • , Radostin Danev
    • , Wolfgang Baumeister
    • , Ming-Wei Wang
    • , Laurence J. Miller
    • , Arthur Christopoulos
    • , Patrick M. Sexton
    •  & Denise Wootten
  • Letter |

    A scalable process is described for fabricating skin-like electronic circuitry that can be bent and stretched while retaining desirable electronic functionality.

    • Sihong Wang
    • , Jie Xu
    • , Weichen Wang
    • , Ging-Ji Nathan Wang
    • , Reza Rastak
    • , Francisco Molina-Lopez
    • , Jong Won Chung
    • , Simiao Niu
    • , Vivian R. Feig
    • , Jeffery Lopez
    • , Ting Lei
    • , Soon-Ki Kwon
    • , Yeongin Kim
    • , Amir M. Foudeh
    • , Anatol Ehrlich
    • , Andrea Gasperini
    • , Youngjun Yun
    • , Boris Murmann
    • , Jeffery B.-H. Tok
    •  & Zhenan Bao
  • Letter |

    High-angular-resolution measurements allow the direct observation of the scattering of energetic electrons by chorus waves in the magnetosphere, which causes quasiperiodic electron precipitation that gives rise to pulsating aurorae.

    • S. Kasahara
    • , Y. Miyoshi
    • , S. Yokota
    • , T. Mitani
    • , Y. Kasahara
    • , S. Matsuda
    • , A. Kumamoto
    • , A. Matsuoka
    • , Y. Kazama
    • , H. U. Frey
    • , V. Angelopoulos
    • , S. Kurita
    • , K. Keika
    • , K. Seki
    •  & I. Shinohara
  • Letter |

    In mouse pancreas cells with only one copy of the Nr5a2 gene, the orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional shift from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes, which results in an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state.

    • Isidoro Cobo
    • , Paola Martinelli
    • , Marta Flández
    • , Latifa Bakiri
    • , Mingfeng Zhang
    • , Enrique Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau
    • , Jinping Jia
    • , Víctor J. Sánchez-Arévalo Lobo
    • , Diego Megías
    • , Irene Felipe
    • , Natalia del Pozo
    • , Irene Millán
    • , Liv Thommesen
    • , Torunn Bruland
    • , Sara H. Olson
    • , Jill Smith
    • , Kristina Schoonjans
    • , William R. Bamlet
    • , Gloria M. Petersen
    • , Núria Malats
    • , Laufey T. Amundadottir
    • , Erwin F. Wagner
    •  & Francisco X. Real
  • Letter |

    A two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device is demonstrated, which can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm.

    • T. F. Watson
    • , S. G. J. Philips
    • , E. Kawakami
    • , D. R. Ward
    • , P. Scarlino
    • , M. Veldhorst
    • , D. E. Savage
    • , M. G. Lagally
    • , Mark Friesen
    • , S. N. Coppersmith
    • , M. A. Eriksson
    •  & L. M. K. Vandersypen
  • Letter |

    Single-cell fluorescence microscopy reveals that cytokinesis occurs in two stages in Staphylococcus aureus, an initial slow phase followed by a faster phase after MurJ protein recruitment to the midcell triggers peptidoglycan synthesis.

    • João M. Monteiro
    • , Ana R. Pereira
    • , Nathalie T. Reichmann
    • , Bruno M. Saraiva
    • , Pedro B. Fernandes
    • , Helena Veiga
    • , Andreia C. Tavares
    • , Margarida Santos
    • , Maria T. Ferreira
    • , Vânia Macário
    • , Michael S. VanNieuwenhze
    • , Sérgio R. Filipe
    •  & Mariana G. Pinho
  • Letter |

    Satellite data and modelling reveal that tropical forest fragments have similar size distributions across continents, and that forest fragmentation is close to a critical point, beyond which fragment numbers will strongly increase.

    • Franziska Taubert
    • , Rico Fischer
    • , Jürgen Groeneveld
    • , Sebastian Lehmann
    • , Michael S. Müller
    • , Edna Rödig
    • , Thorsten Wiegand
    •  & Andreas Huth
  • Letter |

    A combination of TGFβ inhibition and checkpoint-inhibition therapy provokes a potent cytotoxic response against metastatic tumours derived from colorectal cancers in mice.

    • Daniele V. F. Tauriello
    • , Sergio Palomo-Ponce
    • , Diana Stork
    • , Antonio Berenguer-Llergo
    • , Jordi Badia-Ramentol
    • , Mar Iglesias
    • , Marta Sevillano
    • , Sales Ibiza
    • , Adrià Cañellas
    • , Xavier Hernando-Momblona
    • , Daniel Byrom
    • , Joan A. Matarin
    • , Alexandre Calon
    • , Elisa I. Rivas
    • , Angel R. Nebreda
    • , Antoni Riera
    • , Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini
    •  & Eduard Batlle
  • Letter |

    Freezing on a spherical surface is shown to proceed by the sequestration of defects into 12 icosahedrally coordinated ‘seas’ that enable the formation of a crystalline ‘continent’ with long-range orientational order.

    • Rodrigo E. Guerra
    • , Colm P. Kelleher
    • , Andrew D. Hollingsworth
    •  & Paul M. Chaikin
  • Letter |

    In humans, TGFβ signalling is associated with lack of response to immunotherapy in immune-excluded tumours; in mouse models of this immune phenotype, robust tumour infiltration by T cells and tumour regression are observed only when checkpoint inhibition is combined with inhibition of TGFβ signalling.

    • Sanjeev Mariathasan
    • , Shannon J. Turley
    • , Dorothee Nickles
    • , Alessandra Castiglioni
    • , Kobe Yuen
    • , Yulei Wang
    • , Edward E. Kadel III
    • , Hartmut Koeppen
    • , Jillian L. Astarita
    • , Rafael Cubas
    • , Suchit Jhunjhunwala
    • , Romain Banchereau
    • , Yagai Yang
    • , Yinghui Guan
    • , Cecile Chalouni
    • , James Ziai
    • , Yasin Şenbabaoğlu
    • , Stephen Santoro
    • , Daniel Sheinson
    • , Jeffrey Hung
    • , Jennifer M. Giltnane
    • , Andrew A. Pierce
    • , Kathryn Mesh
    • , Steve Lianoglou
    • , Johannes Riegler
    • , Richard A. D. Carano
    • , Pontus Eriksson
    • , Mattias Höglund
    • , Loan Somarriba
    • , Daniel L. Halligan
    • , Michiel S. van der Heijden
    • , Yohann Loriot
    • , Jonathan E. Rosenberg
    • , Lawrence Fong
    • , Ira Mellman
    • , Daniel S. Chen
    • , Marjorie Green
    • , Christina Derleth
    • , Gregg D. Fine
    • , Priti S. Hegde
    • , Richard Bourgon
    •  & Thomas Powles
  • Letter |

    A quantum-liquid state of spin–orbital-entangled magnetic moments is observed in the 5d-electron honeycomb iridate H3LiIr2O6, evidenced by the absence of magnetic ordering down to 0.05 kelvin.

    • K. Kitagawa
    • , T. Takayama
    • , Y. Matsumoto
    • , A. Kato
    • , R. Takano
    • , Y. Kishimoto
    • , S. Bette
    • , R. Dinnebier
    • , G. Jackeli
    •  & H. Takagi
  • Letter |

    There has been about a forty per cent reduction in the transport of carbonate ions to the deep North Atlantic Ocean since preindustrial times, severely endangering cold-water corals.

    • Fiz F. Perez
    • , Marcos Fontela
    • , Maribel I. García-Ibáñez
    • , Herlé Mercier
    • , Anton Velo
    • , Pascale Lherminier
    • , Patricia Zunino
    • , Mercedes de la Paz
    • , Fernando Alonso-Pérez
    • , Elisa F. Guallart
    •  & Xose A. Padin
  • Letter |

    KSR–MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts, thus challenging the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.

    • Hugo Lavoie
    • , Malha Sahmi
    • , Pierre Maisonneuve
    • , Sara A. Marullo
    • , Neroshan Thevakumaran
    • , Ting Jin
    • , Igor Kurinov
    • , Frank Sicheri
    •  & Marc Therrien