Letters

  • Letter |

    • Alex W. Wilkinson
    • , Jonathan Diep
    • , Shaobo Dai
    • , Shuo Liu
    • , Yaw Shin Ooi
    • , Dan Song
    • , Tie-Mei Li
    • , John R. Horton
    • , Xing Zhang
    • , Chao Liu
    • , Darshan V. Trivedi
    • , Katherine M. Ruppel
    • , José G. Vilches-Moure
    • , Kerriann M. Casey
    • , Justin Mak
    • , Tina Cowan
    • , Joshua E. Elias
    • , Claude M. Nagamine
    • , James A. Spudich
    • , Xiaodong Cheng
    • , Jan E. Carette
    •  & Or Gozani
  • Letter |

    An electrically controlled phase transition from topological insulator to conventional insulator in ultrathin films of the topological Dirac semimetal, Na3Bi.

    • James L. Collins
    • , Anton Tadich
    • , Weikang Wu
    • , Lidia C. Gomes
    • , Joao N. B. Rodrigues
    • , Chang Liu
    • , Jack Hellerstedt
    • , Hyejin Ryu
    • , Shujie Tang
    • , Sung-Kwan Mo
    • , Shaffique Adam
    • , Shengyuan A. Yang
    • , Michael S. Fuhrer
    •  & Mark T. Edmonds
  • Letter |

    α1,3-galactosyltransferase-knockout pig hearts that express human CD46 and human thrombomodulin require non-ischaemic preservation with continuous perfusion and post-transplantation growth control to ensure long-term orthotopic function of the xenograft in baboons.

    • Matthias Längin
    • , Tanja Mayr
    • , Bruno Reichart
    • , Sebastian Michel
    • , Stefan Buchholz
    • , Sonja Guethoff
    • , Alexey Dashkevich
    • , Andrea Baehr
    • , Stefanie Egerer
    • , Andreas Bauer
    • , Maks Mihalj
    • , Alessandro Panelli
    • , Lara Issl
    • , Jiawei Ying
    • , Ann Kathrin Fresch
    • , Ines Buttgereit
    • , Maren Mokelke
    • , Julia Radan
    • , Fabian Werner
    • , Isabelle Lutzmann
    • , Stig Steen
    • , Trygve Sjöberg
    • , Audrius Paskevicius
    • , Liao Qiuming
    • , Riccardo Sfriso
    • , Robert Rieben
    • , Maik Dahlhoff
    • , Barbara Kessler
    • , Elisabeth Kemter
    • , Katharina Klett
    • , Rabea Hinkel
    • , Christian Kupatt
    • , Almuth Falkenau
    • , Simone Reu
    • , Reinhard Ellgass
    • , Rudolf Herzog
    • , Uli Binder
    • , Günter Wich
    • , Arne Skerra
    • , David Ayares
    • , Alexander Kind
    • , Uwe Schönmann
    • , Franz-Josef Kaup
    • , Christian Hagl
    • , Eckhard Wolf
    • , Nikolai Klymiuk
    • , Paolo Brenner
    •  & Jan-Michael Abicht
  • Letter |

    Satellite observations reveal over 200 ammonia hotspots associated with agricultural and industrial point sources, which emit much larger quantities of ammonia to the atmosphere than previously thought.

    • Martin Van Damme
    • , Lieven Clarisse
    • , Simon Whitburn
    • , Juliette Hadji-Lazaro
    • , Daniel Hurtmans
    • , Cathy Clerbaux
    •  & Pierre-François Coheur
  • Letter |

    Orthogonal ribosomes are engineered in which the two subunits are stapled together in a way that limits association with endogenous subunits in cells, enabling the evolution of new functionality in the orthogonal ribosome.

    • Wolfgang H. Schmied
    • , Zakir Tnimov
    • , Chayasith Uttamapinant
    • , Christopher D. Rae
    • , Stephen D. Fried
    •  & Jason W. Chin
  • Letter |

    Ice-core-derived melt records reveal that atmospheric warming has recently intensified Greenland ice-sheet surface melt and runoff to levels that are exceptional over at least the last 350 years.

    • Luke D. Trusel
    • , Sarah B. Das
    • , Matthew B. Osman
    • , Matthew J. Evans
    • , Ben E. Smith
    • , Xavier Fettweis
    • , Joseph R. McConnell
    • , Brice P. Y. Noël
    •  & Michiel R. van den Broeke
  • Letter |

    The identification of a complex haematopoietic system in a colonial tunicate sheds light on the evolution of the mammalian blood system.

    • Benyamin Rosental
    • , Mark Kowarsky
    • , Jun Seita
    • , Daniel M. Corey
    • , Katherine J. Ishizuka
    • , Karla J. Palmeri
    • , Shih-Yu Chen
    • , Rahul Sinha
    • , Jennifer Okamoto
    • , Gary Mantalas
    • , Lucia Manni
    • , Tal Raveh
    • , D. Nathaniel Clarke
    • , Jonathan M. Tsai
    • , Aaron M. Newman
    • , Norma F. Neff
    • , Garry P. Nolan
    • , Stephen R. Quake
    • , Irving L. Weissman
    •  & Ayelet Voskoboynik
  • Letter |

    Early results from the COSINE-100 experiment—designed to test a much-debated claim of the detection of a dark-matter signal—show no indications of dark matter, providing evidence against the previous claim.

    • Govinda Adhikari
    • , Pushparaj Adhikari
    • , Estella Barbosa de Souza
    • , Nelson Carlin
    • , Seonho Choi
    • , Mitra Djamal
    • , Anthony C. Ezeribe
    • , Chang Hyon Ha
    • , Insik Hahn
    • , Antonia J. F. Hubbard
    • , Eunju Jeon
    • , Jay Hyun Jo
    • , Hanwool Joo
    • , Woon Gu Kang
    • , Woosik Kang
    • , Matthew Kauer
    • , Bonghee Kim
    • , Hongjoo Kim
    • , Hyounggyu Kim
    • , Kyungwon Kim
    • , Nam Young Kim
    • , Sun Kee Kim
    • , Yeongduk Kim
    • , Yong-Hamb Kim
    • , Young Ju Ko
    • , Vitaly A. Kudryavtsev
    • , Hyun Su Lee
    • , Jaison Lee
    • , Jooyoung Lee
    • , Moo Hyun Lee
    • , Douglas S. Leonard
    • , Warren A. Lynch
    • , Reina H. Maruyama
    • , Frederic Mouton
    • , Stephen L. Olsen
    • , Byungju Park
    • , Hyang Kyu Park
    • , Hyeonseo Park
    • , Jungsic Park
    • , Kangsoon Park
    • , Walter C. Pettus
    • , Hafizh Prihtiadi
    • , Sejin Ra
    • , Carsten Rott
    • , Andrew Scarff
    • , Keon Ah Shin
    • , Neil J. C. Spooner
    • , William G. Thompson
    • , Liang Yang
    •  & Seok Hyun Yong
  • Letter |

    Streptomyces secondary metabolites provide a chemical defence against phage predation.

    • Sarah Kronheim
    • , Martin Daniel-Ivad
    • , Zhuang Duan
    • , Sungwon Hwang
    • , Andrew I. Wong
    • , Ian Mantel
    • , Justin R. Nodwell
    •  & Karen L. Maxwell
  • Letter |

    A refractive lens and a refractive prism for extreme-ultraviolet radiation have been developed that use the deflection of the radiation in an inhomogeneous jet of atoms.

    • L. Drescher
    • , O. Kornilov
    • , T. Witting
    • , G. Reitsma
    • , N. Monserud
    • , A. Rouzée
    • , J. Mikosch
    • , M. J. J. Vrakking
    •  & B. Schütte
  • Letter |

    PD-1 undergoes internalization, FBXO38-mediated ubiquitination and proteasome degradation in activated T cells, and inhibition of this pathway dampens anti-tumour immunity of T cells.

    • Xiangbo Meng
    • , Xiwei Liu
    • , Xingdong Guo
    • , Shutan Jiang
    • , Tingting Chen
    • , Zhiqiang Hu
    • , Haifeng Liu
    • , Yibing Bai
    • , Manman Xue
    • , Ronggui Hu
    • , Shao-cong Sun
    • , Xiaolong Liu
    • , Penghui Zhou
    • , Xiaowu Huang
    • , Lai Wei
    • , Wei Yang
    •  & Chenqi Xu
  • Letter |

    Stella, a factor essential for female fertility, protects the oocyte methylome in mice by suppressing de novo DNA methylation mediated by the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1.

    • Yingfeng Li
    • , Zhuqiang Zhang
    • , Jiayu Chen
    • , Wenqiang Liu
    • , Weiyi Lai
    • , Baodong Liu
    • , Xiang Li
    • , Liping Liu
    • , Shaohua Xu
    • , Qiang Dong
    • , Mingzhu Wang
    • , Xiaoya Duan
    • , Jiajun Tan
    • , Yong Zheng
    • , Pumin Zhang
    • , Guoping Fan
    • , Jiemin Wong
    • , Guo-Liang Xu
    • , Zhigao Wang
    • , Hailin Wang
    • , Shaorong Gao
    •  & Bing Zhu
  • Letter |

    Improved techniques allow the measurement of a frequency difference with an uncertainty of the order of 10–19 between two independent atomic optical lattice clocks, suggesting that they may be able to improve state-of-the-art geodetic techniques.

    • W. F. McGrew
    • , X. Zhang
    • , R. J. Fasano
    • , S. A. Schäffer
    • , K. Beloy
    • , D. Nicolodi
    • , R. C. Brown
    • , N. Hinkley
    • , G. Milani
    • , M. Schioppo
    • , T. H. Yoon
    •  & A. D. Ludlow
  • Letter |

    A modelling framework is presented to determine the optimal layout and physical properties of networks in which the nodes and links have physical sizes and intersections between components is prohibited.

    • Nima Dehmamy
    • , Soodabeh Milanlouei
    •  & Albert-László Barabási
  • Letter |

    Single-cell analysis reveals that interactions with the extracellular matrix via integrin α5 and mechanotransducer YAP1 determine whether pancreatic progenitors develop along the duct or endocrine lineages.

    • Anant Mamidi
    • , Christy Prawiro
    • , Philip A. Seymour
    • , Kristian Honnens de Lichtenberg
    • , Abigail Jackson
    • , Palle Serup
    •  & Henrik Semb
  • Letter |

    High-angular-resolution observations of the quasar 3C 273 reveal that it has a relatively small but thick disk, viewed nearly face-on, in which material is orbiting the central supermassive black hole.

    • E. Sturm
    • , J. Dexter
    • , O. Pfuhl
    • , M. R. Stock
    • , R. I. Davies
    • , D. Lutz
    • , Y. Clénet
    • , A. Eckart
    • , F. Eisenhauer
    • , R. Genzel
    • , D. Gratadour
    • , S. F. Hönig
    • , M. Kishimoto
    • , S. Lacour
    • , F. Millour
    • , H. Netzer
    • , G. Perrin
    • , B. M. Peterson
    • , P. O. Petrucci
    • , D. Rouan
    • , I. Waisberg
    • , J. Woillez
    • , A. Amorim
    • , W. Brandner
    • , N. M. Förster Schreiber
    • , P. J. V. Garcia
    • , S. Gillessen
    • , T. Ott
    • , T. Paumard
    • , K. Perraut
    • , S. Scheithauer
    • , C. Straubmeier
    • , L. J. Tacconi
    •  & F. Widmann
  • Letter |

    In mammalian cells, NP220 is a key protein that recruits the HUSH complex, SETDB1 and the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC4 to silence unintegrated retroviral DNA.

    • Yiping Zhu
    • , Gary Z. Wang
    • , Oya Cingöz
    •  & Stephen P. Goff
  • Letter |

    The position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds responds immediately to abrupt North Atlantic climate events of the last ice age, with a spatially heterogeneous impact on Antarctic climate.

    • Christo Buizert
    • , Michael Sigl
    • , Mirko Severi
    • , Bradley R. Markle
    • , Justin J. Wettstein
    • , Joseph R. McConnell
    • , Joel B. Pedro
    • , Harald Sodemann
    • , Kumiko Goto-Azuma
    • , Kenji Kawamura
    • , Shuji Fujita
    • , Hideaki Motoyama
    • , Motohiro Hirabayashi
    • , Ryu Uemura
    • , Barbara Stenni
    • , Frédéric Parrenin
    • , Feng He
    • , T. J. Fudge
    •  & Eric J. Steig
  • Letter |

    An in vitro system that generates three-dimensional cultures of extraembryonic fetal trophoblast cells that differentiate into the two main types of trophoblast can be used to study human placental development.

    • Margherita Y. Turco
    • , Lucy Gardner
    • , Richard G. Kay
    • , Russell S. Hamilton
    • , Malwina Prater
    • , Michael S. Hollinshead
    • , Alasdair McWhinnie
    • , Laura Esposito
    • , Ridma Fernando
    • , Helen Skelton
    • , Frank Reimann
    • , Fiona M. Gribble
    • , Andrew Sharkey
    • , Steven G. E. Marsh
    • , Stephen O’Rahilly
    • , Myriam Hemberger
    • , Graham J. Burton
    •  & Ashley Moffett
  • Letter |

    Using a double-aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, intercalation of lithium between two graphene sheets is found to produce a dense, multilayer lithium phase, rather than the expected single layer.

    • Matthias Kühne
    • , Felix Börrnert
    • , Sven Fecher
    • , Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl
    • , Johannes Biskupek
    • , Dominik Samuelis
    • , Arkady V. Krasheninnikov
    • , Ute Kaiser
    •  & Jurgen H. Smet
  • Letter |

    Ikzf2, which encodes the transcription factor Helios, is identified as a crucial regulator of gene expression in maturing cochlear outer hair cells, and overexpression of Ikzf2 in inner hair cells induces prestin expression and electromotility.

    • Lauren Chessum
    • , Maggie S. Matern
    • , Michael C. Kelly
    • , Stuart L. Johnson
    • , Yoko Ogawa
    • , Beatrice Milon
    • , Mark McMurray
    • , Elizabeth C. Driver
    • , Andrew Parker
    • , Yang Song
    • , Gemma Codner
    • , Christopher T. Esapa
    • , Jack Prescott
    • , Graham Trent
    • , Sara Wells
    • , Abigail K. Dragich
    • , Gregory I. Frolenkov
    • , Matthew W. Kelley
    • , Walter Marcotti
    • , Steve D. M. Brown
    • , Ran Elkon
    • , Michael R. Bowl
    •  & Ronna Hertzano
  • Letter |

    Distinct transcriptional programs are activated during different stages of apoptotic cell engulfment, including a unique program of genes coding for solute carrier proteins and enzymes in the glycolytic pathway.

    • Sho Morioka
    • , Justin S. A. Perry
    • , Michael H. Raymond
    • , Christopher B. Medina
    • , Yunlu Zhu
    • , Liyang Zhao
    • , Vlad Serbulea
    • , Suna Onengut-Gumuscu
    • , Norbert Leitinger
    • , Sarah Kucenas
    • , Jeffrey C. Rathmell
    • , Liza Makowski
    •  & Kodi S. Ravichandran
  • Letter |

    A non-classical superposition of zero- and one-phonon mechanical Fock states is generated and measured by strongly coupling a surface acoustic-wave resonator to a superconducting qubit.

    • K. J. Satzinger
    • , Y. P. Zhong
    • , H.-S. Chang
    • , G. A. Peairs
    • , A. Bienfait
    • , Ming-Han Chou
    • , A. Y. Cleland
    • , C. R. Conner
    • , É. Dumur
    • , J. Grebel
    • , I. Gutierrez
    • , B. H. November
    • , R. G. Povey
    • , S. J. Whiteley
    • , D. D. Awschalom
    • , D. I. Schuster
    •  & A. N. Cleland
  • Letter |

    A solid-state propulsion system can sustain powered flight, as demonstrated by an electroaerodynamically propelled heavier-than-air aeroplane.

    • Haofeng Xu
    • , Yiou He
    • , Kieran L. Strobel
    • , Christopher K. Gilmore
    • , Sean P. Kelley
    • , Cooper C. Hennick
    • , Thomas Sebastian
    • , Mark R. Woolston
    • , David J. Perreault
    •  & Steven R. H. Barrett
  • Letter |

    Mannose reduces the growth of tumour cells by impairing the metabolism of glucose, and enhances cell death when used in combination with conventional chemotherapy.

    • Pablo Sierra Gonzalez
    • , James O’Prey
    • , Simone Cardaci
    • , Valentin J. A. Barthet
    • , Jun-ichi Sakamaki
    • , Florian Beaumatin
    • , Antonia Roseweir
    • , David M. Gay
    • , Gillian Mackay
    • , Gaurav Malviya
    • , Elżbieta Kania
    • , Shona Ritchie
    • , Alice D. Baudot
    • , Barbara Zunino
    • , Agata Mrowinska
    • , Colin Nixon
    • , Darren Ennis
    • , Aoisha Hoyle
    • , David Millan
    • , Iain A. McNeish
    • , Owen J. Sansom
    • , Joanne Edwards
    •  & Kevin M. Ryan
  • Letter |

    Climate-driven periodicity of flowstone accretion between 3.2 and 1.3 million years ago in Cradle of Humankind caves reveals that the presence of hominin fossils reflects accumulation in open caves during intermittent, substantially drier phases.

    • Robyn Pickering
    • , Andy I. R. Herries
    • , Jon D. Woodhead
    • , John C. Hellstrom
    • , Helen E. Green
    • , Bence Paul
    • , Terrence Ritzman
    • , David S. Strait
    • , Benjamin J. Schoville
    •  & Phillip J. Hancox
  • Letter |

    New World hantaviruses—which cause a severe human respiratory disease—use surface glycoproteins to bind to the human protocadherin-1 protein and enter endothelial cells in vitro; depleting protocadherin-1 in Syrian golden hamsters largely protects against disease.

    • Rohit K. Jangra
    • , Andrew S. Herbert
    • , Rong Li
    • , Lucas T. Jae
    • , Lara M. Kleinfelter
    • , Megan M. Slough
    • , Sarah L. Barker
    • , Pablo Guardado-Calvo
    • , Gleyder Román-Sosa
    • , M. Eugenia Dieterle
    • , Ana I. Kuehne
    • , Nicolás A. Muena
    • , Ariel S. Wirchnianski
    • , Elisabeth K. Nyakatura
    • , J. Maximilian Fels
    • , Melinda Ng
    • , Eva Mittler
    • , James Pan
    • , Sushma Bharrhan
    • , Anna Z. Wec
    • , Jonathan R. Lai
    • , Sachdev S. Sidhu
    • , Nicole D. Tischler
    • , Félix A. Rey
    • , Jason Moffat
    • , Thijn R. Brummelkamp
    • , Zhongde Wang
    • , John M. Dye
    •  & Kartik Chandran
  • Letter |

    Strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus use a prophage-encoded glycosyltransferase to alter the glycosylation of their wall teichoic acid and thereby evade antibody-mediated immune responses.

    • David Gerlach
    • , Yinglan Guo
    • , Cristina De Castro
    • , Sun-Hwa Kim
    • , Katja Schlatterer
    • , Fei-Fei Xu
    • , Claney Pereira
    • , Peter H. Seeberger
    • , Sara Ali
    • , Jeroen Codée
    • , Wanchat Sirisarn
    • , Berit Schulte
    • , Christiane Wolz
    • , Jesper Larsen
    • , Antonio Molinaro
    • , Bok Luel Lee
    • , Guoqing Xia
    • , Thilo Stehle
    •  & Andreas Peschel
  • Letter |

    Organic light-emitting devices containing radical emitters can achieve an efficiency of 27 per cent at deep-red and infrared wavelengths based on the excitation of spin doublets, rather than singlet or triplet states.

    • Xin Ai
    • , Emrys W. Evans
    • , Shengzhi Dong
    • , Alexander J. Gillett
    • , Haoqing Guo
    • , Yingxin Chen
    • , Timothy J. H. Hele
    • , Richard H. Friend
    •  & Feng Li
  • Letter |

    In zebrafish embryogenesis, nascent haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), homing to a vascular niche for retention, are ushered by patrolling and guiding macrophages through integrin-mediated cell-cell recognition.

    • Dantong Li
    • , Wenzhi Xue
    • , Mei Li
    • , Mei Dong
    • , Jianwei Wang
    • , Xianda Wang
    • , Xiyue Li
    • , Kai Chen
    • , Wenjuan Zhang
    • , Shuang Wu
    • , Yingqi Zhang
    • , Lei Gao
    • , Yujie Chen
    • , Jianfeng Chen
    • , Bo O. Zhou
    • , Yi Zhou
    • , Xuebiao Yao
    • , Lin Li
    • , Dianqing Wu
    •  & Weijun Pan
  • Letter |

    Levallois stone-tool technology found at the Guanyindong Cave site in southwest China was dated to approximately 170,000–80,000 years ago, which is much earlier than previously thought.

    • Yue Hu
    • , Ben Marwick
    • , Jia-Fu Zhang
    • , Xue Rui
    • , Ya-Mei Hou
    • , Jian-Ping Yue
    • , Wen-Rong Chen
    • , Wei-Wen Huang
    •  & Bo Li
  • Letter |

    Cryptic connections facilitate the community-wide spread of disease both within and among species.

    • Joseph R. Hoyt
    • , Kate E. Langwig
    • , J. Paul White
    • , Heather M. Kaarakka
    • , Jennifer A. Redell
    • , Allen Kurta
    • , John E. DePue
    • , William H. Scullon
    • , Katy L. Parise
    • , Jeffrey T. Foster
    • , Winifred F. Frick
    •  & A. Marm Kilpatrick
  • Letter |

    Ordered oxygen complexes in high-entropy alloys enhance both strength and ductility in these compositionally complex solid solutions.

    • Zhifeng Lei
    • , Xiongjun Liu
    • , Yuan Wu
    • , Hui Wang
    • , Suihe Jiang
    • , Shudao Wang
    • , Xidong Hui
    • , Yidong Wu
    • , Baptiste Gault
    • , Paraskevas Kontis
    • , Dierk Raabe
    • , Lin Gu
    • , Qinghua Zhang
    • , Houwen Chen
    • , Hongtao Wang
    • , Jiabin Liu
    • , Ke An
    • , Qiaoshi Zeng
    • , Tai-Gang Nieh
    •  & Zhaoping Lu
  • Letter |

    An immunoprecipitation-based protocol is developed to analyse DNA methylation in small quantities of circulating cell-free DNA, and can detect and classify cancers in plasma samples from several tumour types.

    • Shu Yi Shen
    • , Rajat Singhania
    • , Gordon Fehringer
    • , Ankur Chakravarthy
    • , Michael H. A. Roehrl
    • , Dianne Chadwick
    • , Philip C. Zuzarte
    • , Ayelet Borgida
    • , Ting Ting Wang
    • , Tiantian Li
    • , Olena Kis
    • , Zhen Zhao
    • , Anna Spreafico
    • , Tiago da Silva Medina
    • , Yadon Wang
    • , David Roulois
    • , Ilias Ettayebi
    • , Zhuo Chen
    • , Signy Chow
    • , Tracy Murphy
    • , Andrea Arruda
    • , Grainne M. O’Kane
    • , Jessica Liu
    • , Mark Mansour
    • , John D. McPherson
    • , Catherine O’Brien
    • , Natasha Leighl
    • , Philippe L. Bedard
    • , Neil Fleshner
    • , Geoffrey Liu
    • , Mark D. Minden
    • , Steven Gallinger
    • , Anna Goldenberg
    • , Trevor J. Pugh
    • , Michael M. Hoffman
    • , Scott V. Bratman
    • , Rayjean J. Hung
    •  & Daniel D. De Carvalho