• Commentary |

    Voluntary reporting of nanomaterials by industry has failed. Mandatory measures are a step in the right direction, but the field needs more data sharing and oversight, say Andrew Maynard and David Rejeski.

    • Andrew Maynard
    •  & David Rejeski
  • Commentary |

    The US government is doing well to communicate uncertainty over swine flu. It must also help the public to visualize what a bad pandemic might be like, says Peter M. Sandman.

    • Peter M. Sandman
  • Commentary |

    We will probably overshoot our current climate targets, so policies of adaptation and recovery need much more attention, say Martin Parry, Jason Lowe and Clair Hanson.

    • Martin Parry
    • , Jason Lowe
    •  & Clair Hanson
  • Commentary |

    Tracking someone's movements can now be done cheaply and easily, and there are few restrictions on who can monitor whom, says Jerome E. Dobson.

    • Jerome E. Dobson
  • Commentary |

    In this, the second of two Commentaries, Sibylle Gaisser, Michael M. Hopkins and colleagues discuss a survey demonstrating that European health-care systems are ill prepared for the commercial reality of gene patents.

    • Sibylle Gaisser
    • , Michael M. Hopkins
    • , Kathleen Liddell
    • , Eleni Zika
    •  & Dolores Ibarreta
  • Commentary |

    In the first of two commentaries on intellectual property, Robert Cook-Deegan, Subhashini Chandrasekharan and Misha Angrist show how the United States can address glitches with exclusive licences.

    • Robert Cook-Deegan
    • , Subhashini Chandrasekharan
    •  & Misha Angrist
  • Commentary |

    Traditional approaches to supplying food are an inefficient 'band aid', says Pedro A. Sanchez. New evidence shows that helping farmers to help themselves is more effective and would be six times cheaper.

    • Pedro A. Sanchez
  • Commentary |

    Brain-implantable devices have a promising future. Key safety issues must be resolved, but the ethics of this new technology present few totally new challenges, says Jens Clausen.

    • Jens Clausen
  • Commentary |

    Basic research saw a boost in Japan's last recession. Better global links will help in the current one, say Atsushi Sunami and Kiyoshi Kurokawa.

    • Atsushi Sunami
    •  & Kiyoshi Kurokawa
  • Commentary |

    The global economic downturn brings both predicament and promise. How will science fare and what role should scientists play on the long road back to recovery and growth? Ten of the world's leading thinkers and practitioners provide analysis, experience and advice.

  • Commentary |

    Navigating an unpredictable world will need different research disciplines to work together as equals, says Noreena Hertz.

    • Noreena Hertz
  • Commentary |

    In this, the second of two opposing commentaries, Stephen Ceci and Wendy M. Williams argue that such research is both morally defensible and important for the pursuit of truth. In the first, Steven Rose argues that studies investigating possible links between race, gender and intelligence do no good.

    • Stephen Ceci
    •  & Wendy M. Williams
  • Commentary |

    Countries are not complying with the UN Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. It's time some changes were made, say Tony Pitcher, Daniela Kalikoski, Ganapathiraju Pramod and Katherine Short.

    • Tony Pitcher
    • , Daniela Kalikoski
    • , Ganapathiraju Pramod
    •  & Katherine Short
  • Commentary |

    For human-subjects research, maximum regulation does not mean maximum protection. Stop regulating minimal risk research, say Scott Kim, Peter Ubel and Raymond De Vries.

    • Scott Kim
    • , Peter Ubel
    •  & Raymond De Vries
  • Commentary |

    Rejuvenate the Environmental Protection Agency. End the stem-cell ban. Re-engage with the UN on climate change. Six leading voices tell Nature what the new US president needs to do to move beyond the Bush legacy.

  • Commentary |

    Cities needlessly shine billions of dollars directly into the sky each year and, as a result, a fifth of the world's population cannot see the Milky Way. Malcolm Smith explains why a dark sky has much to offer everyone.

    • Malcolm Smith
  • Commentary |

    Not all problems will yield to technology. Deciding which will and which won't should be central to setting innovation policy, say Daniel Sarewitz and Richard Nelson.

    • Daniel Sarewitz
    •  & Richard Nelson
  • Commentary |

    Although the credit crunch has lowered the price of food, a global recession now raises the hunger pains of the most vulnerable. The stage is set for the next international food crisis, says Joachim von Braun.

    • Joachim von Braun
  • Commentary |

    Society must respond to the growing demand for cognitive enhancement. That response must start by rejecting the idea that 'enhancement' is a dirty word, argue Henry Greely and colleagues.

    • Henry Greely
    • , Barbara Sahakian
    • , John Harris
    • , Ronald C. Kessler
    • , Michael Gazzaniga
    • , Philip Campbell
    •  & Martha J. Farah
  • Commentary |

    The time is right to push global learning beyond primary-school level, says Joel E. Cohen. The benefits could include a dramatically smaller increase in world population by 2050.

    • Joel E. Cohen
  • Commentary |

    A new path for evolution? A truce in the culture wars? Here's what a selection of readers told Nature they expect from Darwin 200.

  • Commentary |

    'Hot' decision-making, involving the evaluation of reward and punishment, is essential to the entrepreneurial process and may be possible to teach, argue Barbara Sahakian and her coauthors.

    • Andrew Lawrence
    • , Luke Clark
    • , Jamie Nicole Labuzetta
    • , Barbara Sahakian
    •  & Shai Vyakarnum
  • Commentary |

    As the prospect of personal genomes for all promises to revolutionize personal health records, Patrick Taylor says that mandating consent does not protect privacy or ensure public benefit.

    • Patrick Taylor
  • Commentary |

    Personal-genome tests are blurring the boundary between experts and lay people. Barbara Prainsack, Jenny Reardon and a team of international collaborators urge regulators to rethink outdated models of regulation.

    • Barbara Prainsack
    • , Jenny Reardon
    • , Richard Hindmarsh
    • , Herbert Gottweis
    • , Ursula Naue
    •  & Jeantine E. Lunshof
  • Commentary |

    Science policies based on techno-nationalist thinking and fantasies about the past technological revolutions will get us nowhere fast, says David Edgerton.

    • David Edgerton
  • Commentary |

    With the right plan, systems biology can empower drug discovery, say Adriano Henney and Giulio Superti-Furga. Field leaders have contributed and now the authors want to hear from you.

    • Adriano Henney
    •  & Giulio Superti-Furga
  • Commentary |

    Researchers need to get past the standard model of vaccine development and focus on how immune responses are specifically tailored to retroviruses, argue Ruslan Medzhitov and Dan Littman.

    • Ruslan Medzhitov
    •  & Dan Littman
  • Commentary |

    The field is healthy, says Bill Wakeham, but scientists need to reclaim the intellectual ownership of research at the margins of the discipline such as medical or atmospheric physics.

    • Bill Wakeham
  • Commentary |

    The OECD is developing a strategy for nations to measure and ultimately promote innovation. It requires knowledge of a complex system, say Fred Gault and Susanne Huttner.

    • Fred Gault
    •  & Susanne Huttner
  • Commentary |

    Scientists need to ensure that their results will be managed for the long haul. Maintaining data takes big organization, says Clifford Lynch.

    • Clifford Lynch
  • Commentary |

    Policies that predict and direct innovative research might seem to be a practical impossibility, says David H. Guston, but social sciences point to a solution.

    • David H. Guston
  • Commentary |

    The processes used to charge athletes with cheating are often based on flawed statistics and flawed logic, says Donald A. Berry.

    • Donald A. Berry
  • Commentary |

    Researchers and businesspeople in China, expatriates and 'returnees' give their views of what it will take to make China a research and innovation powerhouse.

  • Commentary |

    The influenza vaccine failed this winter. Steven Salzberg suggests that future success relies on sharing data more widely and making the virus strain selection process more transparent.

    • Steven Salzberg
  • Commentary |

    Committing to a vaccine stockpile is just the beginning. Tadataka Yamada, Alice Dautry and Mark Walport offer a roadmap for heading off a global avian influenza catastrophe.

    • Tadataka Yamada
    • , Alice Dautry
    •  & Mark Walport
  • Commentary |

    A survey of large objects near Earth has shown that there is little risk of a cataclysmic impact in the next century. Alan Harris asks if such cataloguing efforts should continue.

    • Alan Harris
  • Commentary |

    A survey suggests that many research misconduct incidents in the United States go unreported to the Office of Research Integrity. Sandra L. Titus, James A. Wells and Lawrence J. Rhoades say it's time to change that.

    • Sandra L. Titus
    • , James A. Wells
    •  & Lawrence J. Rhoades
  • Commentary |

    If Japan is to become a front-runner in pharmaceutical development, it must not only speed up its approval of new drugs, but also enhance its own research capabilities, argue Kaori Tsuji and Kiichiro Tsutani.

    • Kaori Tsuji
    •  & Kiichiro Tsutani