Journal metrics

This page provides information on peer review performance and citation metrics for the Nature Research journals. Data are collected annually for full calendar years. More information regarding the release of these data can be found here. Click here to download our quick reference guide to journal metrics.

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2018 Peer Review Metrics

Submission to first editorial decision: the median time (in days) from when a complete submission is received to when a first editorial decision about whether the paper was sent out for formal review or not is sent to the authors.

Submission to first post-review decision: for manuscripts that are sent to external reviewers, the median time (in days) taken from when a complete submission is received to when a editorial decision post-review is sent to the authors.

Submission to Accept: the median time (in days) from the published submission date to the final editorial acceptance date; submission date corresponds to the date of receipt of the version of the paper that received an editorial decision to revise and resubmit.

Nature Research journals Submission to first editorial decision (median, days) Submission to first post-review decision (median, days) Submission to Accept (median, days)
Nature 8 44 204
Nature Astronomy 7 43 148
Nature Biomedical Engineering 5 63 282
Nature Biotechnology 7 55 234
Nature Catalysis 8 44 162
Nature Cell Biology 6 45 219
Nature Chemical Biology 7 44 194
Nature Chemistry 9 62 201
Nature Climate Change 7 71 229
Nature Communications 8 43 188
Nature Ecology & Evolution 6 43 193
Nature Electronics 15 60 149
Nature Energy 10 56 198
Nature Genetics 4 48 266
Nature Geoscience 11 80 183
Nature Human Behaviour 7 56 237
Nature Immunology 6 35 224
Nature Machine Intelligence 13 56 -
Nature Materials 7 52 244
Nature Medicine 5 41 196
Nature Metabolism 6 36 140
Nature Methods 7 58 185
Nature Microbiology 6 39 182
Nature Nanotechnology 11 51 208
Nature Neuroscience 8 49 175
Nature Photonics 13 64 190
Nature Physics 9 61 192
Nature Plants 8 41 162
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 5 37 117
Nature Sustainability 15 71 161
Communications Biology 10 42 161
Communications Chemistry 3 32 91
Communications Physics 8 52 129
npj 2D Materials and Applications 11 44 119
npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease 11 44 179
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 12 53 179
npj Breast Cancer 12 51 144
npj Clean Water 15 75 156
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 14 57 166
npj Computational Materials 7 48 134
npj Digital Medicine 6 40 104
npj Flexible Electronics 16 55 116
npj Genomic Medicine 4 37 107
npj Materials Degradation 5 34 106
npj Microgravity 12 53 146
npj Parkinson's Disease 8 42 139
npj Precision Oncology 9 43 131
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 22 71 164
npj Quantum Information 18 69 170
npj Quantum Materials 6 41 158
npj Regenerative Medicine 20 59 224
npj Schizophrenia 6 33 129
npj Science of Food 17 73 225
npj Science of Learning 20 87 179
npj Systems Biology and Applications 20 73 189
npj Vaccines 8 40 135
Scientific Data 13 50 137
Scientific Reports 22 60 138

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2018 Journal Metrics

Impact Factor is just one of a number of metrics that can be used to evaluate a journal, and a small number of highly cited papers can have a disproportionate effect on the mean number of citations per paper. On this page you will find a suite of citation-based metrics for Nature Research journals including Nature, the Nature-branded reviews and research journals, Scientific Reports, Scientific Data and the Nature Partner Journals which provide an overview of these journals. Because the median is not subject to the distortions from outliers, we have developed and provided the 2-year Median, derived from Web of Science data and defined as the median number of citations received in 2018 for articles published in 2016 and 2017 in Nature, the Nature-branded research and reviews journals and Scientific Reports. The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports are shown below. Brief definitions for each of the metrics used to measure the influence of our journals are included below the tables. More information regarding the approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. Article-level metrics are also available on each article page, allowing readers to track the reach of individual papers.

Commentaries on Impact Factors and their use and misuse can be found in our editorials and other content, going back for many years, links to a sample of which are provided at the end of the page.

As described above, Nature Research has produced the 2-year Median in the table below. All other data has been produced by Clarivate Analytics.

Journal metrics are based on the published output, thus those that are calculated from the output in multiple years will use a partial dataset for recently launched journals.

While the metrics presented here are not intended to be a definitive list, we hope that they will prove to be informative. The page is updated on an annual basis.

Multidisciplinary Journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature 43.070 45.819 9.435 1.285010 22.396 26
Nature Communications 11.878 13.811 2.107 1.103290 5.402 8
Scientific Reports 4.011 4.525 0.679 1.061540 1.286 3
Scientific Data 5.929 6.776 1.014 0.015610 2.724 2
Nature-branded research journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Astronomy 10.500 10.500 4.121 0.006480 4.911 7
Nature Biomedical Engineering 17.135 17.149 3.736 0.006440 6.590 11
Nature Biotechnology 31.864 45.117 9.410 0.158140 22.167 16
Nature Catalysis N/A N/A 6.206 0.000010 N/A N/A
Nature Cell Biology 17.728 20.551 4.808 0.082430 10.113 14
Nature Chemical Biology 12.154 13.942 4.368 0.061180 6.379 9
Nature Chemistry 23.193 27.347 6.522 0.091920 10.113 17
Nature Climate Change 21.722 25.170 4.116 0.098100 9.941 13
Nature Ecology & Evolution 10.965 10.969 3.262 0.016670 5.537 7
Nature Energy 54.000 54.026 8.027 0.040630 16.273 28
Nature Genetics 25.455 31.077 6.426 0.221380 16.807 18
Nature Geoscience 14.480 15.781 3.250 0.074200 7.284 11
Nature Human Behaviour 10.575 10.586 3.448 0.006550 5.700 6
Nature Immunology 23.530 23.906 4.948 0.094250 10.959 17
Nature Materials 38.887 46.863 9.616 0.177380 16.596 22
Nature Medicine 30.641 34.848 7.847 0.162840 15.662 21
Nature Methods 28.467 34.975 4.170 0.205090 20.345 15
Nature Microbiology 14.300 14.306 4.262 0.027420 6.762 9
Nature Nanotechnology 33.407 43.341 7.434 0.154960 16.045 20
Nature Neuroscience 21.126 21.403 5.165 0.164700 11.783 15
Nature Photonics 31.583 38.301 6.583 0.116060 14.355 18
Nature Physics 20.113 21.797 6.521 0.115320 11.337 14
Nature Plants 13.297 13.338 2.914 0.020100 5.535 10
Nature Protocols 11.334 15.086 1.863 0.081330 7.364 6
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 12.109 12.650 3.309 0.069440 7.445 9
Nature-branded reviews journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Reviews Cancer 51.848 50.502 10.942 0.074080 19.538 35
Nature Reviews Cardiology 17.420 15.700 6.960 0.018820 5.481 11
Nature Reviews Chemistry 30.628 30.628 4.977 0.006720 11.831 21
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 34.106 25.506 13.286 0.031890 9.773 19
Nature Reviews Disease Primers 32.274 31.366 5.233 0.019740 11.409 25
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 57.618 58.884 13.306 0.054890 20.880 36
Nature Reviews Endocrinology 24.646 21.813 6.174 0.026300 7.600 18
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 23.570 21.184 6.854 0.025400 6.941 14
Nature Reviews Genetics 43.704 42.812 7.980 0.079260 21.737 27
Nature Reviews Immunology 44.019 51.347 12.481 0.080220 20.866 34
Nature Reviews Materials 74.449 74.459 12.617 0.033870 26.166 49
Nature Reviews Microbiology 34.648 34.420 7.732 0.054610 13.466 27
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 43.351 49.631 17.674 0.091360 23.603 34
Nature Reviews Nephrology 19.684 15.328 4.545 0.017080 5.110 14
Nature Reviews Neurology 21.155 23.891 6.396 0.031060 8.873 15
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 33.162 39.845 5.520 0.068480 17.876 26
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 18.545 15.993 3.313 0.021650 5.391 13
Nature Reviews Urology 9.333 8.079 2.311 0.009550 2.730 6
Nature Partner Journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
npj Biofilms & Microbiomes 6.333 6.319 0.741 0.001800 1.900
npj Computational Materials 9.200 9.651 1.545 0.003660 3.229
npj Genomic Medicine 4.422 4.422 0.656 0.001620 1.920
npj Microgravity 3.111 2.954 0.478 0.000670 0.781
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 2.820 3.005 0.357 0.002690 0.952
npj Quantum Information 8.270 9.181 1.603 0.005340 4.873
npj Vaccines 5.020 5.020 0.729 0.001120 1.739
Other Nature Research journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
Lab Animal 2.794 1.427 0.800 0.000770 0.449
NPG Asia Materials 8.052 8.930 1.343 0.011090 2.182

The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports showing citations accumulated in 2018 to citable items published in 2016 and 2017. The distributions were calculated according to the methodology described in Larivière, V. et al., A simple proposal for the publication of journal citation distributions. Preprint at bioRxiv doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/062109 (2016).

Nature 2018 citation distribution

Nature Communications 2018 citation distribution

Scientific Reports 2018 citation distribution

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Definitions

2-year Impact Factor:

The Journal Impact Factor is defined as all citations to the journal in the current JCR year to items published in the previous two years, divided by the total number of scholarly items (these comprise articles, reviews, and proceedings papers) published in the journal in the previous two years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

5-year Impact Factor:

The 5-year journal Impact Factor, available from 2007 onward, is the average number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year. It is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the five previous years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Immediacy index:

The Immediacy Index is the average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published. The journal Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a journal are cited. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Eigenfactor® Score:

The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals. References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Article Influence Score:

The Article Influence Score determines the average influence of a journal's articles over the first five years after publication. It is calculated by multiplying the Eigenfactor Score by 0.01 and dividing by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications. This measure is roughly analogous to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor in that it is a ratio of a journal's citation influence to the size of the journal's article contribution over a period of five years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

2-year Median:

The median number of citations received in 2017 for articles published in in 2015 and 2016. Data from Web of Science was used; more information regarding the details of article categories and approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. (Nature Research Data)

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Editorials and other content

  • Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators. Nature. Time to remodel the journal impact factor, July 2016
  • The journal impact factor is a much-criticized yet still-used number. As with any metric, it should not be used uncritically and without an understanding of what it measures. Nature Methods. On Impact, August 2015.
  • Use these ten principles to guide research evaluation, urge Diana Hicks, Paul Wouters and colleagues. Nature. Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics, 22 April 2015.
  • The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), an initiative spearheaded by the American Society for Cell Biology, aims to reform research assessment. Nature Cell Biology. Ending the tyranny of the impact factor, January 2014.
  • In deciding how to judge the impact of research, evaluators must take into account the effects of emphasizing particular measures — and be open about their methods. Nature. The maze of impact metrics, 17 October 2013.
  • As the journal's first impact factor is released, it is time to reflect on journal metrics and how Nature Climate Change has been making its mark. Nature Climate Change. Having an impact, July 2013.
  • Citation analyses can condense scholarly output into numbers, but they do not live up to peer review in the evaluation of scientists. Online usage statistics and commenting could soon enable a more refined assessment of scientific impact. Nature Materials. Measuring impact, July 2011.
  • The classic impact factor is outmoded. Is there an alternative for assessing both a researcher's productivity and a journal's quality? Nature Immunology. Ball and chain, October 2010.
  • Nature Metrics special, June 2010. The value of scientific output is often measured, to rank one nation against another, allocate funds between universities, or even grant or deny tenure. Scientometricians have devised a multitude of 'metrics' to help in these rankings. Do they work? Are they fair? Are they over-used? Nature investigates.
  • Transparency, education and communication are key to ensuring that appropriate metrics are used to measure individual scientific achievement. Nature. Assessing Assessment, 17 June 2010.
  • Research assessment rests too heavily on the inflated status of the impact factor. Nature. Not-so-deep impact, 23 June 2005.

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