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Types of permission request

Permission can be obtained for re-use of portions of material - ranging from a single figure to a whole paper - in books, journals/magazines, newsletters, theses/dissertations, classroom materials/academic course packs, academic conference materials, training materials (including continuing medical education), promotional materials, and web sites. Some permission requests can be granted free of charge, others carry a fee.

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Permission requests from authors

The author of articles published by Springer Nature do not usually need to seek permission for re-use of their material as long as the journal is credited with initial publication.

Ownership of copyright in in original research articles remains with the Author, and provided that, when reproducing the contribution or extracts from it or from the Supplementary Information, the Author acknowledges first and reference publication in the Journal, the Author retains the following non-exclusive rights:

To reproduce the contribution in whole or in part in any printed volume (book or thesis) of which they are the author(s).

The author and any academic institution where they work at the time may reproduce the contribution for the purpose of course teaching.

To reuse figures or tables created by the Author and contained in the Contribution in oral presentations and other works created by them.

To post a copy of the contribution as accepted for publication after peer review (in locked Word processing file, of a PDF version thereof) on the Author's own web site, or the Author's institutional repository, or the Author's funding body's archive, six months after publication of the printed or online edition of the Journal, provided that they also link to the contribution on the publisher's website.

The above use of the term 'Contribution' refers to the author's own version, not the final version as published in the Journal.


Authors retain the right to self-archive the final accepted version of their manuscript. Please see our self-archiving policy for full details:

Author reuse

Authors have the right to reuse their article’s Version of Record, in whole or in part, in their own thesis. Additionally, they may reproduce and make available their thesis, including Springer Nature content, as required by their awarding academic institution.

Authors must properly cite the published article in their thesis according to current citation standards.

Material from: 'AUTHOR, TITLE, JOURNAL TITLE, published [YEAR], [publisher - as it appears on our copyright page]'

If you are any doubt about whether your intended re-use is covered, please contact for confirmation.

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Springer Nature is partnered with the Copyright Clearance Center to meet our customers' licensing and permissions needs.

Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink® service makes it faster and easier to secure permission for the reuse of Springer Nature content.

  • Simply visit SpringerLink or and locate the desired content;
  • Once you have opened the article or book chapter click on the "Rights and Permissions" button. This can either be found under the article title, at the bottom of the page or in the tools menu.
  • Select the way you would like to reuse the content;
  • Create an account if you haven't already;
  • Accept the terms and conditions and you're done!

For questions about using the RightsLink service, please contact Customer Support at Copyright Clearance Center via phone +1-855-239-3415 or +1-978-646-2777 or email

How to obtain permission to reuse Springer Nature content not available online

Requests for permission to reuse content (e.g. figure or table, abstract, text excerpts) from Springer Nature publications currently not available online must be submitted in writing to the following email addresses:

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