Journal Metrics

This page provides information on peer review performance and citation metrics for the Nature Portfolio journals. Data are collected annually for full calendar years. More information regarding the release of these data can be found here. Click here to download our quick reference guide to journal metrics.

Nature Portfolio is a signatory of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (see here for more information about our endorsement). We believe that Impact Factor is just one of a number of metrics that can be used to evaluate a journal, and a small number of highly cited papers can have a disproportionate effect on the mean number of citations per paper.

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2021 Peer Review Metrics

Submission to first editorial decision: the median time (in days) from when a submission is received to when a first editorial decision about whether the paper was sent out for formal review or not is sent to the authors.

Submission to first post-review decision: for manuscripts that are sent to external reviewers, the median time (in days) taken from when a submission is received to when a editorial decision post-review is sent to the authors.

Submission to Accept: the median time (in days) from the published submission date to the final editorial acceptance date.

Nature Portfolio journals Submission to first editorial decision (median, days) Submission to first post-review decision (median, days) Submission to Accept (median, days)
Nature 7 44 213
Nature Aging 10 49 171
Nature Astronomy 7 44 130
Nature Biomedical Engineering 1 40 362
Nature Biotechnology 6 52 216
Nature Cancer 7 49 170
Nature Cardiovascular Research 5 41 97
Nature Catalysis 16 52 218
Nature Cell Biology 7 47 191
Nature Chemical Biology 5 39 185
Nature Chemistry 10 59 218
Nature Climate Change 7 54 172
Nature Communications 10 46 218
Nature Computational Science 12 62 116
Nature Ecology & Evolution 5 45 154
Nature Electronics 14 64 218
Nature Energy 10 54 154
Nature Food 8 66 184
Nature Genetics 5 44 258
Nature Geoscience 13 103 304
Nature Human Behaviour 4 53 238
Nature Immunology 6 37 99
Nature Machine Intelligence 14 65 175
Nature Materials 7 48 198
Nature Medicine 4 32 56
Nature Metabolism 7 39 149
Nature Methods 6 52 226
Nature Microbiology 9 51 146
Nature Nanotechnology 9 53 146
Nature Neuroscience 9 55 270
Nature Photonics 14 54 145
Nature Physics 7 57 147
Nature Plants 14 53 188
Nature Protocols 7 43 172
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 10 46 114
Nature Sustainability 13 55 183
Nature Synthesis 9 42 113
Communications Biology 27 44 210
Communications Chemistry 26 36 108
Communications Earth & Environment 40 51 175
Communications Materials 16 44 160
Communications Medicine 10 56 152
Communications Physics 13 50 153
Lab Animal 12 69 188
NPG Asia Materials 9 44 132
npj 2D Materials and Applications 16 45 127
npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease 13 77 248
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 15 50 160
npj Breast Cancer 26 55 195
npj Clean Water 31 42 132
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 35 47 162
npj Computational Materials 15 48 143
npj Digital Medicine 5 45 168
npj Flexible Electronics 32 41 116
npj Genomic Medicine 9 39 153
npj Materials Degradation 34 34 116
npj Microgravity 56 61 154
npj Parkinson's Disease 44 53 176
npj Precision Oncology 7 45 186
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 37 65 189
npj Quantum Information 49 77 189
npj Quantum Materials 29 40 134
npj Regenerative Medicine 40 61 206
npj Schizophrenia 6 43 126
npj Science of Food 40 53 156
npj Science of Learning 55 94 242
npj Systems Biology and Applications 19 67 208
npj Urban Sustainability 32 101 228
npj Vaccines 13 38 139
Scientific Data 10 53 139
Scientific Reports 56 59 133

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2021 Journal Metrics

On this page you will find a suite of citation-based metrics for Nature Portfolio journals including Nature, the Nature reviews and research journals, Scientific Reports, Scientific Data and the Nature Partner Journals which provide an overview of these journals. Because the median is not subject to the distortions from outliers, we have developed and provided the 2-year Median, derived from Web of Science data and defined as the median number of citations received last year for articles published in the two prior years. in Nature, the Nature research and reviews journals and Scientific Reports. The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports are shown below. Brief definitions for each of the metrics used to measure the influence of our journals are included below the tables. More information regarding the approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. Article-level metrics are also available on each article page, allowing readers to track the reach of individual papers.

Commentaries on Impact Factors and their use and misuse can be found in our editorials and other content, going back for many years, links to a sample of which are provided at the end of the page.

As described above, Nature Portfolio has produced the 2-year Median in the table below. All other data has been produced by Clarivate Analytics.

Journal metrics are based on the published output, thus those that are calculated from the output in multiple years will use a partial dataset for recently launched journals.

While the metrics presented here are not intended to be a definitive list, we hope that they will prove to be informative. The page is updated on an annual basis.

Multidisciplinary journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature 69.504 63.580 17.085 1.11428 25.568 31
Nature Communications 17.694 17.763 3.637 1.2969 5.612 10
Scientific Reports 4.996 5.516 0.973 1.17671 1.207 3
Scientific Data 8.501 11.211 1.531 0.04575 3.515 4
Nature research journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Astronomy 15.647 13.863 3.880 0.02637 5.666 9
Nature Biomedical Engineering 29.234 31.072 5.148 0.02704 8.867 18
Nature Biotechnology 68.164 60.196 7.162 0.15529 26.927 27
Nature Cancer 23.177 23.190 5.100 0.00816 10.883 15
Nature Catalysis 40.706 47.253 6.080 0.04113 13.529 15
Nature Cell Biology 28.213 28.123 5.456 0.06043 10.463 22.5
Nature Chemical Biology 16.174 16.374 3.967 0.04456 5.991 11
Nature Chemistry 24.274 25.943 5.106 0.05902 8.394 17
Nature Climate Change 28.660 32.350 6.470 0.07252 10.573 16
Nature Ecology & Evolution 19.100 18.622 4.428 0.05145 6.761 11
Nature Electronics 33.255 38.829 5.770 0.02126 11.248 23
Nature Energy 67.439 72.478 11.802 0.08551 18.147 38
Nature Food 67.439 72.478 11.802 0.08551 18.147 9
Nature Genetics 41.307 39.321 8.703 0.16337 19.278 26.5
Nature Geoscience 21.531 20.473 4.058 0.05053 7.46 13
Nature Human Behaviour 24.252 23.411 8.232 0.04187 10.298 9
Nature Immunology 31.250 31.003 6.952 0.08071 12.623 20
Nature Machine Intelligence 25.898 25.912 4.814 0.01094 8.412 9
Nature Materials 47.656 49.937 9.005 0.12118 15.112 28
Nature Medicine 87.241 68.310 26.706 0.23255 27.016 40
Nature Metabolism 19.865 19.950 5.371 0.0141 7.424 14
Nature Methods 47.990 53.497 7.660 0.18619 27.257 21
Nature Microbiology 30.964 26.109 6.194 0.07492 9.524 13
Nature Nanotechnology 40.523 42.230 7.530 0.08705 11.993 27
Nature Neuroscience 28.771 29.887 6.103 0.11604 13.526 19
Nature Photonics 39.728 40.182 8.519 0.07093 13.052 21
Nature Physics 19.684 22.019 5.447 0.09141 9.981 13
Nature Plants 17.352 19.328 4.646 0.0322 6.01 12
Nature Protocols 17.021 18.942 2.305 0.05443 7.207 8
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 18.361 15.858 4.684 0.04689 7.677 12
Nature Sustainability 27.157 28.224 4.455 0.02631 7.673 15
Nature reviews journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Reviews Cancer 69.800 78.980 12.000 0.0533 22.265 48
Nature Reviews Cardiology 49.421 39.992 6.396 0.029 11.877 26
Nature Reviews Chemistry 34.571 43.808 6.735 0.02136 12.706 26
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 65.011 69.561 14.000 0.04148 18.982 39
Nature Reviews Disease Primers 65.038 83.065 14.625 0.04754 23.062 47
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 112.288 98.740 29.053 0.04911 26.924 45.5
Nature Reviews Earth & Environment  37.214 37.214 7.094 0.00458 11.489 23
Nature Reviews Endocrinology  47.564 47.766 5.354 0.02824 12.438 25.5
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 73.082 58.645 10.980 0.03536 15.192 37
Nature Reviews Genetics 59.581 59.166 5.234 0.05805 24.15 37
Nature Reviews Immunology 108.555 91.763 17.030 0.07675 28.956 38
Nature Reviews Materials 76.679 106.196 12.727 0.06731 27.786 55
Nature Reviews Microbiology 78.297 72.908 11.736 0.05586 20.852 44
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 113.915 97.004 12.133 0.0779 32.668 80
Nature Reviews Nephrology 42.439 38.717 4.267 0.02314 10.281 22
Nature Reviews Neurology 44.711 42.347 6.913 0.0295 12.522 27
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 38.755 47.614 6.551 0.04313 17.531 31
Nature Reviews Physics 36.273 36.273 6.549 0.01222 14.623 18
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 32.286 29.597 4.022 0.01874 7.647 19
Nature Reviews Urology  16.430 15.584 1.909 0.0087 3.931 9.5
Communications Journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
Communications Biology 6.548 6.816 1.541 0.02842 2.168
Communications Chemistry 7.211 7.243 1.213 0.00606 1.702
Communications Earth & Environment 7.290 7.290 1.847 0.00138 2.355
Communications Physics 6.497 6.863 1.271 0.01101 2.483
npj Journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
npj 2D Materials and Applications 10.516 12.043 2.163 0.00465 2.99
npj Biofilms & Microbiomes 8.462 9.667 1.807 0.00355 2.117
npj Breast Cancer 7.519 7.741 0.942 0.00534 2.652
npj Clean Water 12.190 12.779 2.909 0.00195 2.393
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 9.448 10.460 1.500 0.00465 3.527
npj Computational Materials 12.256 14.333 1.707 0.01647 3.697
npj Digital Medicine 15.357 15.597 3.126 0.01291 4.533
npj Flexible Electronics 12.019 13.242 2.030 0.00234 2.602
npj Genomic Medicine 6.083 6.928 0.970 0.00397 2.323
npj Materials Degradation 6.889 8.500 0.895 0.00202 1.546
npj Microgravity 4.970 5.396 0.577 0.00142 1.041
npj Parkinson's Disease 9.304 9.705 1.609 0.0034 2.3
npj Precision Oncology 10.092 11.040 1.485 0.00306 2.578
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 3.289 3.706 0.659 0.00232 0.961
npj Quantum Information 10.758 10.891 2.047 0.01316 3.981
npj Quantum Materials 6.856 7.600 1.612 0.0079 2.774
npj Regenerative Medicine 14.404 13.479 1.439 0.00251 2.815
npj Science of Food 7.000 9.657 1.517 0.00094 1.492
npj Science of Learning 5.513 Not Available 1.000 0.00151 Not Available
npj Systems Biology and Applications 4.671 5.235 1.298 0.00239 1.48
npj Vaccines 9.399 8.816 3.417 0.00674 2.896
           
Other Nature Portfolio journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
Lab Animal 9.667 8.608 1.846 0.00091 1.898
NPG Asia Materials 10.761 10.990 2.597 0.00958 2.089

The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports showing citations accumulated in 2019 to citable items published in 2017 and 2018. The distributions were calculated according to the methodology described in Larivière, V. et al., A simple proposal for the publication of journal citation distributions. Preprint at bioRxiv doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/062109 (2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Definitions

2-year Impact Factor:

The Journal Impact Factor is defined as all citations to the journal in the current JCR year to items published in the previous two years, divided by the total number of scholarly items (these comprise articles, reviews, and proceedings papers) published in the journal in the previous two years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

5-year Impact Factor:

The 5-year journal Impact Factor, available from 2007 onward, is the average number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year. It is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the five previous years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Immediacy index:

The Immediacy Index is the average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published. The journal Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a journal are cited. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Eigenfactor® Score:

The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals. References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Article Influence Score:

The Article Influence Score determines the average influence of a journal's articles over the first five years after publication. It is calculated by multiplying the Eigenfactor Score by 0.01 and dividing by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications. This measure is roughly analogous to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor in that it is a ratio of a journal's citation influence to the size of the journal's article contribution over a period of five years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

2-year Median:

The median number of citationsreceived last year for articles published in the two prior years. Data from Web of Science was used; more information regarding the details of article categories and approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. (Nature Portfolio Data)

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Editorials and other content

  • Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators. Nature. Time to remodel the journal impact factor, July 2016
  • The journal impact factor is a much-criticized yet still-used number. As with any metric, it should not be used uncritically and without an understanding of what it measures. Nature Methods. On Impact, August 2015.
  • Use these ten principles to guide research evaluation, urge Diana Hicks, Paul Wouters and colleagues. Nature. Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics, 22 April 2015.
  • The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), an initiative spearheaded by the American Society for Cell Biology, aims to reform research assessment. Nature Cell Biology. Ending the tyranny of the impact factor, January 2014.
  • In deciding how to judge the impact of research, evaluators must take into account the effects of emphasizing particular measures — and be open about their methods. Nature. The maze of impact metrics, 17 October 2013.
  • As the journal's first impact factor is released, it is time to reflect on journal metrics and how Nature Climate Change has been making its mark. Nature Climate Change. Having an impact, July 2013.
  • Citation analyses can condense scholarly output into numbers, but they do not live up to peer review in the evaluation of scientists. Online usage statistics and commenting could soon enable a more refined assessment of scientific impact. Nature Materials. Measuring impact, July 2011.
  • The classic impact factor is outmoded. Is there an alternative for assessing both a researcher's productivity and a journal's quality? Nature Immunology. Ball and chain, October 2010.
  • Nature Metrics special, June 2010. The value of scientific output is often measured, to rank one nation against another, allocate funds between universities, or even grant or deny tenure. Scientometricians have devised a multitude of 'metrics' to help in these rankings. Do they work? Are they fair? Are they over-used? Nature investigates.
  • Transparency, education and communication are key to ensuring that appropriate metrics are used to measure individual scientific achievement. Nature. Assessing Assessment, 17 June 2010.
  • Research assessment rests too heavily on the inflated status of the impact factor. Nature. Not-so-deep impact, 23 June 2005.

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