Journal metrics

This page provides information on peer review performance and citation metrics for the Nature Portfolio journals. Data are collected annually for full calendar years. More information regarding the release of these data can be found here. Click here to download our quick reference guide to journal metrics.

Nature Portfolio is a signatory of San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (see here for more information about our endorsement). We believe that Impact Factor is just one of a number of metrics that can be used to evaluate a journal, and a small number of highly cited papers can have a disproportionate effect on the mean number of citations per paper.

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2019 Peer Review Metrics

Submission to first editorial decision: the median time (in days) from when a submission is received to when a first editorial decision about whether the paper was sent out for formal review or not is sent to the authors.

Submission to first post-review decision: for manuscripts that are sent to external reviewers, the median time (in days) taken from when a submission is received to when a editorial decision post-review is sent to the authors.

Submission to Accept: the median time (in days) from the published submission date to the final editorial acceptance date.

Nature Portfolio journals Submission to first editorial decision (median, days) Submission to first post-review decision (median, days) Submission to Accept (median, days)
Nature 8 45 223.5
Nature Astronomy 7 41 112
Nature Biomedical Engineering 4 51 260
Nature Biotechnology 8 50 229
Nature Cancer 7 41 82
Nature Catalysis 8 39 152
Nature Cell Biology 8 51 234
Nature Chemical Biology 7 41 198
Nature Chemistry 11 68 256.5
Nature Climate Change 7 61 178
Nature Communications 8 46 200
Nature Ecology & Evolution 5 42 148
Nature Electronics 15 58 164
Nature Energy 9 48.5 157
Nature Food 7 51 101.5
Nature Genetics 6 47 236.5
Nature Geoscience 10 64 211
Nature Human Behaviour 6 52 223
Nature Immunology 6 32 159
Nature Machine Intelligence 13 60 97
Nature Materials 7 49 200
Nature Medicine 4 38 145.5
Nature Metabolism 7 38.5 118.5
Nature Methods 7 45 207.5
Nature Microbiology 5 41 206
Nature Nanotechnology 7 45 170
Nature Neuroscience 8 50 258
Nature Photonics 7 55.5 160
Nature Physics 7 61 162
Nature Plants 9 45 161
Nature Protocols 8 43 174
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 6 35 81
Nature Sustainability 11 58 182
Communications Biology 9 44 171
Communications Chemistry 3 34 120
Communications Materials 2 33 62.5
Communications Physics 11 60 149
Lab Animal 15 78 0
NPG Asia Materials 8 42.5 100.5
npj 2D Materials and Applications 11 41 116
npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease 11.5 51 131
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes 11 41 140
npj Breast Cancer 13 49 153
npj Clean Water 8 44 141
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 8 58 165.5
npj Computational Materials 12 53 143.5
npj Digital Medicine 6 46 119
npj Flexible Electronics 16.5 48 138
npj Genomic Medicine 5 42.5 135
npj Materials Degradation 6 44 124
npj Microgravity 11 62 172.5
npj Parkinson's Disease 12 54 134
npj Precision Oncology 10 47.5 155
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 17 85 189
npj Quantum Information 18 62 147.5
npj Quantum Materials 6 46 134.5
npj Regenerative Medicine 19 58 196
npj Schizophrenia 5 38.5 113
npj Science of Food 18 62 177
npj Science of Learning 16 62.5 205
npj Systems Biology and Applications 13 74 195
npj Urban Sustainability 23 3 NULL
npj Vaccines 9 41 139
Scientific Data 12 62 143.5
Scientific Reports 24 80 167

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2019 Journal Metrics

On this page you will find a suite of citation-based metrics for Nature Portfolio journals including Nature, the Nature reviews and research journals, Scientific Reports, Scientific Data and the Nature Partner Journals which provide an overview of these journals. Because the median is not subject to the distortions from outliers, we have developed and provided the 2-year Median, derived from Web of Science data and defined as the median number of citations received in 2019 for articles published in 2017 and 2018 in Nature, the Nature research and reviews journals and Scientific Reports. The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports are shown below. Brief definitions for each of the metrics used to measure the influence of our journals are included below the tables. More information regarding the approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. Article-level metrics are also available on each article page, allowing readers to track the reach of individual papers.

Commentaries on Impact Factors and their use and misuse can be found in our editorials and other content, going back for many years, links to a sample of which are provided at the end of the page.

As described above, Nature Portfolio has produced the 2-year Median in the table below. All other data has been produced by Clarivate Analytics.

Journal metrics are based on the published output, thus those that are calculated from the output in multiple years will use a partial dataset for recently launched journals.

While the metrics presented here are not intended to be a definitive list, we hope that they will prove to be informative. The page is updated on an annual basis.

Multidisciplinary journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature 42.778 46.486 9.687 1.21673 21.96 27
Nature Communications 12.121 13.610 2.187 1.25951 5.267 9
Scientific Reports 3.998 4.576 0.527 1.23118 1.263 3
Scientific Data 5.541 7.670 0.703 0.02872 3.168 3
Nature research journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Astronomy 11.518 11.676 4.839 0.01265 4.843 8
Nature Biomedical Engineering 18.952 18.952 5.153 0.01418 7.696 13
Nature Biotechnology 36.558 42.297 9.911 0.15664 22.474 22.5
Nature Catalysis 30.471 30.480 6.027 0.01406 10.921 25
Nature Cell Biology 20.042 20.960 6.311 0.07722 10.227 14
Nature Chemical Biology 12.587 13.824 3.569 0.06013 6.384 9
Nature Chemistry 21.687 24.633 5.968 0.08275 9.154 15
Nature Climate Change 20.893 24.312 4.256 0.089 9.591 14
Nature Ecology & Evolution 12.541 12.559 3.514 0.03136 5.621 9
Nature Electronics 27.500 27.500 3.893 0.00786 10.047 18.5
Nature Energy 46.495 56.397 8.828 0.0672 17.741 28
Nature Genetics 27.603 30.331 9.711 0.2079 16.922 21
Nature Geoscience 13.566 16.103 3.883 0.06815 7.284 11
Nature Human Behaviour 12.282 12.316 2.643 0.01419 6.461 6
Nature Immunology 20.479 22.300 5.586 0.08187 10.276 14
Nature Materials 38.663 43.608 7.864 0.15846 15.609 22
Nature Medicine 36.130 36.230 11.706 0.16873 16.437 24
Nature Methods 30.822 36.147 5.284 0.20562 21.743 15
Nature Microbiology 15.540 16.293 4.407 0.04152 7.458 11
Nature Nanotechnology 31.538 40.301 7.56 0.14075 14.668 19
Nature Neuroscience 20.071 21.504 4.99 0.14439 11.528 16
Nature Photonics 31.241 36.870 9.548 0.10024 13.783 19.5
Nature Physics 19.256 20.921 5.021 0.11517 10.911 12
Nature Plants 13.256 14.576 3 0.02768 5.769 11
Nature Protocols 10.419 13.563 2.413 0.06798 6.705 7
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology 11.980 12.263 3.025 0.0568 6.954 11
Nature Sustainability 12.080 12.092 3.119 0.00507 4.622 7
Nature reviews journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score 2-year Median
Nature Reviews Cancer 53.030 52.659 9.047 0.06603 19.155 35
Nature Reviews Cardiology 20.260 17.825 7.512 0.02113 6.513 11
Nature Reviews Chemistry 34.953 34.953 4.721 0.01398 12.878 21
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 53.276 34.517 11.463 0.03598 11.973 19
Nature Reviews Disease Primers 40.689 42.523 4.231 0.03231 14.706 25
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 64.797 60.796 18.694 0.04917 20.392 36
Nature Reviews Endocrinology  28.800 25.806 5.978 0.02538 7.978 18
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 29.848 23.722 8.395 0.02447 7.371 15
Nature Reviews Genetics 33.133 44.337 11.667 0.07032 21.588 27
Nature Reviews Immunology 40.358 49.054 9.442 0.06847 19.508 34
Nature Reviews Materials 71.189 84.972 7.455 0.0528 28.844 49
Nature Reviews Microbiology 34.209 36.883 10.075 0.0522 14.209 27
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 55.470 53.949 18.932 0.08233 23.657 43
Nature Reviews Nephrology 20.711 18.624 5.69 0.01959 6.413 14
Nature Reviews Neurology 27.000 25.125 5.851 0.02877 8.901 15
Nature Reviews Neuroscience 33.654 36.673 5.26 0.0554 15.783 26
Nature Reviews Rheumatology 16.625 18.087 3.543 0.02079 5.72 13
Nature Reviews Urology  11.000 9.402 2.395 0.00881 2.803 6
Nature Partner Journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
npj 2D Materials and Applications 9.324 9.338 1.059 0.00275 3.078
npj Biofilms & Microbiomes 7.067 7.576 1.057 0.00284 2.275
npj Breast Cancer 6.000 Not Available 1 0.00359 Not Available
npj Clean Water 4.870 4.870 1.5 0.00029 1.02
npj Climate and Atmospheric Science 5.365 Not Available 0.976 0.00169 Not Available
npj Computational Materials 9.341 11.282 1.69 0.00714 3.47
npj Genomic Medicine 5.631 5.802 0.5 0.00332 2.747
npj Microgravity 3.380 3.682 0.733 0.00121 1.09
npj Parkinson's Disease 6.750 Not Available 0.464 0.0025 Not Available
npj Precision Oncology 7.717 7.717 1.121 0.00152 2.011
npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 3.231 2.969 0.405 0.00306 0.946
npj Quantum Information 7.286 8.870 1.883 0.00772 4.188
npj Quantum Materials 6.562 6.762 1.286 0.00548 2.952
npj Regenerative Medicine 7.021 8.298 1.136 0.00163 2.748
npj Schizophrenia 4.304 Not Available 0.762 0.00206 Not Available
npj Systems Biology and Applications 3.813 4.343 0.629 0.00206 1.514
npj Vaccines 5.699 5.433 1.438 0.0024 1.964
Other Nature Portfolio journals 2-year Impact Factor 5-year Impact Factor Immediacy index Eigenfactor® score Article Influence Score
Communications Biology 4.165 Not Available 0.95 0.00426 Not Available
Communications Chemistry 4.253 4.253 0.886 0.00154 1.284
Communications Physics 4.684 4.684 0.848 0.00235 1.962
Lab Animal 9.600 2.969 1.667 0.00132 1.068
NPG Asia Materials 8.131 8.727 1.089 0.01181 2.061

The distribution of citations for Nature, Nature Communications and Scientific Reports showing citations accumulated in 2019 to citable items published in 2017 and 2018. The distributions were calculated according to the methodology described in Larivière, V. et al., A simple proposal for the publication of journal citation distributions. Preprint at bioRxiv doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/062109 (2016).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Definitions

2-year Impact Factor:

The Journal Impact Factor is defined as all citations to the journal in the current JCR year to items published in the previous two years, divided by the total number of scholarly items (these comprise articles, reviews, and proceedings papers) published in the journal in the previous two years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

5-year Impact Factor:

The 5-year journal Impact Factor, available from 2007 onward, is the average number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year. It is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the JCR year by the total number of articles published in the five previous years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Immediacy index:

The Immediacy Index is the average number of times an article is cited in the year it is published. The journal Immediacy Index indicates how quickly articles in a journal are cited. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Eigenfactor® Score:

The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals. References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

Article Influence Score:

The Article Influence Score determines the average influence of a journal's articles over the first five years after publication. It is calculated by multiplying the Eigenfactor Score by 0.01 and dividing by the number of articles in the journal, normalized as a fraction of all articles in all publications. This measure is roughly analogous to the 5-Year Journal Impact Factor in that it is a ratio of a journal's citation influence to the size of the journal's article contribution over a period of five years. (Courtesy of Clarivate Analytics)

2-year Median:

The median number of citations received in 2017 for articles published in in 2015 and 2016. Data from Web of Science was used; more information regarding the details of article categories and approach taken to derive the median citation can be found here. (Nature Portfolio Data)

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Editorials and other content

  • Nature and the Nature journals are diversifying their presentation of performance indicators. Nature. Time to remodel the journal impact factor, July 2016
  • The journal impact factor is a much-criticized yet still-used number. As with any metric, it should not be used uncritically and without an understanding of what it measures. Nature Methods. On Impact, August 2015.
  • Use these ten principles to guide research evaluation, urge Diana Hicks, Paul Wouters and colleagues. Nature. Bibliometrics: The Leiden Manifesto for research metrics, 22 April 2015.
  • The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), an initiative spearheaded by the American Society for Cell Biology, aims to reform research assessment. Nature Cell Biology. Ending the tyranny of the impact factor, January 2014.
  • In deciding how to judge the impact of research, evaluators must take into account the effects of emphasizing particular measures — and be open about their methods. Nature. The maze of impact metrics, 17 October 2013.
  • As the journal's first impact factor is released, it is time to reflect on journal metrics and how Nature Climate Change has been making its mark. Nature Climate Change. Having an impact, July 2013.
  • Citation analyses can condense scholarly output into numbers, but they do not live up to peer review in the evaluation of scientists. Online usage statistics and commenting could soon enable a more refined assessment of scientific impact. Nature Materials. Measuring impact, July 2011.
  • The classic impact factor is outmoded. Is there an alternative for assessing both a researcher's productivity and a journal's quality? Nature Immunology. Ball and chain, October 2010.
  • Nature Metrics special, June 2010. The value of scientific output is often measured, to rank one nation against another, allocate funds between universities, or even grant or deny tenure. Scientometricians have devised a multitude of 'metrics' to help in these rankings. Do they work? Are they fair? Are they over-used? Nature investigates.
  • Transparency, education and communication are key to ensuring that appropriate metrics are used to measure individual scientific achievement. Nature. Assessing Assessment, 17 June 2010.
  • Research assessment rests too heavily on the inflated status of the impact factor. Nature. Not-so-deep impact, 23 June 2005.

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