2022 Research Leaders: Leading government institutions

The 2022 Research Leaders are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021.

Table criteria

Position Institution Share 2020 Share 2021 Count 2021 Change in Adjusted Share* 2020–2021
1 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 1890.31 1971.00 6335 1.4% Increase
2 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 695.95 659.47 4402 -7.8% Decrease
3 National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States of America (USA) 399.22 406.79 1011 -0.9% Decrease
4 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 220.48 213.06 1235 -6.0% Decrease
5 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 172.09 173.35 860 -2.0% Decrease
6 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 152.63 168.97 812 7.7% Increase
7 RIKEN, Japan 164.41 155.47 660 -8.0% Decrease
8 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 104.17 110.49 549 3.2% Increase
9 National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), France 92.13 104.95 1011 10.8% Increase
10 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), United States of America (USA) 117.25 101.72 541 -15.6% Decrease
11 National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 91.90 100.53 396 6.4% Increase
12 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA) 108.85 97.47 560 -12.9% Decrease
13 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA) 101.62 97.17 431 -7.0% Decrease
14 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), United States of America (USA) 100.72 93.11 320 -10.1% Decrease
15 Institute for Basic Science (IBS), South Korea 87.07 92.58 349 3.4% Increase
16 UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), United Kingdom (UK) 101.03 92.49 735 -10.9% Decrease
17 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 100.26 92.16 362 -10.6% Decrease
18 Czech Academy of Sciences (CAS), Czech Republic 95.10 91.45 471 -6.4% Decrease
19 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States of America (USA) 91.30 80.75 312 -14.0% Decrease
20 The French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), France 87.58 79.82 841 -11.3% Decrease
21 People's Liberation Army (PLA), China 80.75 78.87 375 -5.0% Decrease
22 Academia Sinica, Taiwan 76.47 76.13 370 -3.1% Decrease
23 Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Poland 74.31 72.68 384 -4.8% Decrease
24 U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), United States of America (USA) 78.40 69.36 281 -13.9% Decrease
25 National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan 75.93 67.85 214 -13.1% Decrease
26 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), United States of America (USA) 73.92 67.77 368 -10.8% Decrease
27 Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 66.82 66.60 298 -3.0% Decrease
28 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India 53.31 62.95 141 14.9% Increase
29 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), United States of America (USA) 75.03 58.30 281 -24.4% Decrease
30 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), India 59.66 57.80 200 -5.7% Decrease
31 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), United States of America (USA) 74.10 56.14 178 -26.3% Decrease
32 Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Switzerland 58.31 53.41 261 -10.9% Decrease
33 European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Germany 52.86 51.09 323 -6.0% Decrease
34 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 51.66 48.81 356 -8.1% Decrease
35 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), United States of America (USA) 51.95 47.62 188 -10.8% Decrease
36 China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), China 34.48 47.45 162 33.9% Increase
37 Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), South Korea 42.94 46.03 193 4.3% Increase
38 China Meteorological Administration (CMA), China 46.81 44.84 167 -6.8% Decrease
39 Sandia National Laboratories, United States of America (USA) 31.80 43.52 144 33.2% Increase
40 Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), China 39.55 42.27 312 4.0% Increase
41 National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Argentina 48.66 41.87 297 -16.3% Decrease
42 Austrian Academy of Sciences (ÖAW), Austria 34.24 41.25 270 17.2% Increase
43 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China 35.89 39.47 175 7.0% Increase
44 Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Italy 42.60 39.01 181 -10.9% Decrease
45 Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS), Hungary 50.76 38.87 285 -25.5% Decrease
46 NWO-I, the Institutes Organisation of NWO, Netherlands 32.71 38.76 311 15.3% Increase
47 National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE), France 37.90 36.85 447 -5.4% Decrease
48 The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia 42.95 32.66 193 -26.0% Decrease
49 Smithsonian Institution, United States of America (USA) 32.04 32.46 249 -1.4% Decrease
50 Institute of Research for Development (IRD), France 30.12 30.39 574 -1.8% Decrease
51 Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Switzerland 28.32 30.24 88 3.9% Increase
52 National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (NRCKI), Russia 23.37 30.07 291 25.2% Increase
53 National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), Japan 35.74 29.86 165 -18.7% Decrease
54 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, United States of America (USA) 32.92 28.87 371 -14.7% Decrease
55 Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Switzerland 30.05 28.81 80 -6.7% Decrease
56 Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII), Spain 36.39 27.60 246 -26.2% Decrease
57 National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), Italy 39.60 26.02 149 -36.1% Decrease
58 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), United States of America (USA) 23.03 23.57 76 -0.4% Decrease
59 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States of America (USA) 22.36 23.52 60 2.4% Increase
60 Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Japan 25.29 22.99 87 -11.5% Decrease
61 Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC), Canada 22.98 22.51 74 -4.7% Decrease
62 High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan 29.64 22.05 212 -27.6% Decrease
63 Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy 21.17 21.90 185 0.6% Increase
64 Brazil Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication (MCTIC), Brazil 21.37 21.29 152 -3.1% Decrease
65 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), United States of America (USA) 19.28 21.23 152 7.1% Increase
66 National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), Italy 20.91 21.13 51 -1.7% Decrease
67 India Department of Space (DOS), India 15.57 20.44 53 27.7% Increase
68 Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), India 10.76 19.51 35 76.4% Increase
69 National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER), India 18.85 18.00 113 -7.1% Decrease
70 Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), South Korea 12.91 17.66 56 33.1% Increase
71 China Earthquake Administration (CEA), China 18.67 17.61 55 -8.2% Decrease
72 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia 16.35 17.37 209 3.3% Increase
73 Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), United States of America (USA) 15.08 17.00 130 9.6% Increase
74 IMDEA Institutes, Spain 11.46 15.83 61 34.4% Increase
75 Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Iran 18.40 15.77 82 -16.6% Decrease
76 Research Organization of Information and Systems (ROIS), Japan 16.86 15.40 88 -11.1% Decrease
77 Natural Resources Canada, Canada 12.05 15.01 48 21.3% Increase
78 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), France 22.98 14.83 97 -37.2% Decrease
79 National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing (NIBS), China 18.02 14.66 51 -20.8% Decrease
80 National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST), Japan 12.54 14.45 42 12.2% Increase
81 Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India 7.10 14.18 88 94.4% Increase
82 Jozef Stefan Institute (IJS), Slovenia 17.81 13.55 124 -26.0% Decrease
83 Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), South Korea 10.51 13.55 51 25.4% Increase
84 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), United States of America (USA) 11.27 13.40 37 15.7% Increase
85 National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Taiwan 10.52 13.32 78 23.1% Increase
86 National Research Council (NRC), Canada 14.96 13.29 62 -13.6% Decrease
87 Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), China 14.62 13.07 61 -13.0% Decrease
88 Natural History Museum, United Kingdom (UK) 9.01 12.56 67 35.6% Increase
89 China Ministry of Ecology and Environment (MEE), China 9.36 12.16 68 26.4% Increase
90 NERC British Antarctic Survey (BAS), United Kingdom (UK) 11.60 12.06 53 1.1% Increase
91 Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Japan 13.86 11.55 112 -18.9% Decrease
92 French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), France 9.48 11.49 92 17.9% Increase
93 Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Australia 12.69 11.44 85 -12.3% Decrease
94 Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), United States of America (USA) 7.60 10.98 58 40.6% Increase
95 Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), India 8.54 10.69 93 21.8% Increase
96 Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Japan 10.19 10.56 80 0.9% Increase
97 Met Office, United Kingdom (UK) 15.06 10.54 51 -31.9% Decrease
98 National Centre for Scientific Research 'Demokritos' (NCSR), Greece 9.32 10.42 124 8.7% Increase
99 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH), Greece 11.13 10.37 56 -9.3% Decrease
100 Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc), India 6.54 10.05 22 49.6% Increase

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences and health sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 145 natural-science and health-science journals. The journals were selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields. The list is reviewed periodically and journals may be removed or added. Articles from eLife were no longer included in the Nature Index from 2023 after the journal changed its publishing model.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.
  5. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen research leaders.