2022 Research Leaders: Leading institutions in physical sciences

The 2022 Research Leaders are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021.

Table criteria

Position Institution Share 2020 Share 2021 Count 2021 Change in Adjusted Share* 2020–2021
1 Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China 572.87 641.21 2385 3.6% Increase
2 Max Planck Society, Germany 330.50 336.46 1246 -5.8% Decrease
3 French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), France 267.35 258.98 1717 -10.3% Decrease
4 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), United States of America (USA) 223.36 236.11 781 -2.2% Decrease
5 University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), China 184.31 226.20 725 13.6% Increase
6 Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, Germany 237.03 225.81 1060 -11.8% Decrease
7 Tsinghua University, China 165.16 210.70 765 18.1% Increase
8 Harvard University, United States of America (USA) 190.99 206.25 682 -0.1% Decrease
9 Stanford University, United States of America (USA) 207.47 203.80 587 -9.1% Decrease
10 The University of Tokyo (UTokyo), Japan 216.90 202.01 642 -13.8% Decrease
11 Peking University (PKU), China 166.78 185.79 766 3.1% Increase
12 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), China 143.25 179.74 1046 16.1% Increase
13 Nanjing University (NJU), China 134.53 171.42 468 17.9% Increase
14 National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Italy 150.17 167.36 797 3.1% Increase
15 Zhejiang University (ZJU), China 114.27 165.30 450 33.9% Increase
16 University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (UK) 177.10 155.08 500 -19.0% Decrease
17 Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), China 117.06 146.79 492 16.1% Increase
18 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), Switzerland 143.30 142.12 378 -8.2% Decrease
19 University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley), United States of America (USA) 136.02 138.65 622 -5.7% Decrease
20 Fudan University, China 90.35 129.12 428 32.3% Increase
21 Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Russia 118.35 128.01 578 0.1% Increase
22 National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore 139.62 127.50 356 -15.5% Decrease
23 University of Oxford, United Kingdom (UK) 126.73 125.76 527 -8.2% Decrease
24 Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore 107.17 118.87 341 2.7% Increase
25 Princeton University, United States of America (USA) 117.07 112.60 398 -11.0% Decrease
26 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), South Korea 107.66 108.71 260 -6.5% Decrease
27 Soochow University, China 78.64 108.25 252 27.4% Increase
28 Northwestern University (NU), United States of America (USA) 88.13 105.94 285 11.3% Increase
29 University of Michigan (U-M), United States of America (USA) 104.89 101.44 376 -10.5% Decrease
30 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States of America (USA) 105.76 100.67 338 -11.9% Decrease
31 Cornell University, United States of America (USA) 105.78 100.38 294 -12.2% Decrease
32 University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), United States of America (USA) 105.12 99.70 323 -12.2% Decrease
33 California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States of America (USA) 126.87 99.37 400 -27.5% Decrease
34 Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), China 79.81 97.86 248 13.5% Increase
35 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland 119.67 96.73 308 -25.2% Decrease
36 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), United States of America (USA) 89.07 96.10 536 -0.1% Decrease
37 University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP), United States of America (USA) 87.20 95.68 403 1.6% Increase
38 Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Spain 94.57 93.82 617 -8.2% Decrease
39 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), United States of America (USA) 90.77 92.09 318 -6.1% Decrease
40 Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), China 60.86 90.53 315 37.7% Increase
41 Seoul National University (SNU), South Korea 78.08 89.98 284 6.7% Increase
42 Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech), China 83.02 87.30 281 -2.7% Decrease
43 The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin), United States of America (USA) 87.58 87.21 335 -7.8% Decrease
44 Kyoto University, Japan 81.71 86.95 282 -1.5% Decrease
45 Imperial College London (ICL), United Kingdom (UK) 95.78 82.74 374 -20.1% Decrease
46 National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan 69.48 81.82 329 9.0% Increase
47 Sichuan University (SCU), China 47.46 81.47 172 58.9% Increase
48 Tianjin University (TJU), China 56.04 80.85 209 33.5% Increase
49 Columbia University in the City of New York (CU), United States of America (USA) 80.38 77.02 255 -11.3% Decrease
50 The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), United States of America (USA) 89.67 76.74 281 -20.8% Decrease
51 Nankai University (NKU), China 61.26 76.45 188 15.5% Increase
52 Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany 61.19 75.86 319 14.7% Increase
53 The University of Chicago (UChicago), United States of America (USA) 95.43 74.81 323 -27.4% Decrease
54 Beijing Institute of Technology (BIT), China 38.84 73.62 177 75.4% Increase
55 University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego), United States of America (USA) 79.75 71.25 227 -17.3% Decrease
56 Shandong University (SDU), China 43.24 69.69 236 49.2% Increase
57 Jilin University (JLU), China 52.04 69.28 149 23.2% Increase
58 RIKEN, Japan 73.21 68.96 330 -12.8% Decrease
59 Wuhan University (WHU), China 53.70 68.88 222 18.7% Increase
60 Xi'an Jiaotong University (XJTU), China 59.37 68.87 175 7.4% Increase
61 Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS), Israel 71.02 68.78 196 -10.4% Decrease
62 Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), South Korea 50.87 68.42 192 24.5% Increase
63 University of Pennsylvania (Penn), United States of America (USA) 69.22 67.35 192 -10.0% Decrease
64 Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), United States of America (USA) 58.37 67.32 221 6.7% Increase
65 Hunan University (HNU), China 40.00 64.61 168 49.5% Increase
66 University of Toronto (U of T), Canada 82.83 64.32 211 -28.1% Decrease
67 Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), South Korea 50.39 64.00 221 17.6% Increase
68 Beihang University (BUAA), China 54.25 62.84 305 7.2% Increase
69 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), United States of America (USA) 57.94 62.06 241 -0.9% Decrease
70 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States of America (USA) 63.19 61.83 234 -9.4% Decrease
71 South China University of Technology (SCUT), China 41.75 61.46 140 36.2% Increase
72 Leibniz Association, Germany 60.08 61.42 373 -5.4% Decrease
73 University of Copenhagen (UCPH), Denmark 56.90 60.73 238 -1.2% Decrease
74 Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI), India 38.80 60.56 188 44.4% Increase
75 University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), United States of America (USA) 58.69 58.71 278 -7.4% Decrease
76 Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (IIT), Israel 65.06 57.73 173 -17.9% Decrease
77 Institute for Basic Science (IBS), South Korea 41.36 57.38 215 28.4% Increase
78 Yonsei University, South Korea 44.32 57.25 230 19.6% Increase
79 Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), United States of America (USA) 71.15 57.10 356 -25.7% Decrease
80 National Research Council (CNR), Italy 49.12 56.43 278 6.3% Increase
81 Tohoku University, Japan 65.07 56.32 245 -19.9% Decrease
82 Purdue University, United States of America (USA) 67.63 56.19 201 -23.1% Decrease
83 Tongji University, China 26.06 55.98 129 98.8% Increase
84 Durham University, United Kingdom (UK) 46.68 55.48 178 10.0% Increase
85 University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison), United States of America (USA) 53.53 54.97 275 -5.0% Decrease
86 City University of Hong Kong (CityU), China 42.73 54.68 163 18.4% Increase
87 The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), China 49.04 54.49 228 2.8% Increase
88 UCL, United Kingdom (UK) 51.46 53.73 307 -3.4% Decrease
89 Shenzhen University (SZU), China 33.32 53.37 153 48.3% Increase
90 Lanzhou University (LZU), China 32.75 53.17 123 50.2% Increase
91 University of Washington (UW), United States of America (USA) 62.33 52.79 314 -21.6% Decrease
92 University of New South Wales (UNSW Sydney), Australia 43.13 52.74 170 13.2% Increase
93 RWTH Aachen University (RWTH Aachen), Germany 33.72 51.82 277 42.2% Increase
94 Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), China 54.31 51.74 122 -11.8% Decrease
95 Yale University, United States of America (USA) 78.19 51.57 275 -39.0% Decrease
96 Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), United States of America (USA) 53.94 51.36 254 -11.9% Decrease
97 Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich (LMU), Germany 47.78 50.67 285 -1.8% Decrease
98 University of Minnesota (UMN), United States of America (USA) 49.70 49.59 242 -7.6% Decrease
99 Xiamen University (XMU), China 50.93 49.22 130 -10.5% Decrease
100 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Switzerland 51.50 48.75 355 -12.4% Decrease

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences and health sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 145 natural-science and health-science journals. The journals were selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields. The list is reviewed periodically and journals may be removed or added. Articles from eLife were no longer included in the Nature Index from 2023 after the journal changed its publishing model.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.
  5. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen research leaders.