2022 Research Leaders: Leading countries/territories

The 2022 Research Leaders are based on Nature Index data from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2021.

Table criteria

Position Country/territory Share 2020 Share 2021 Count 2021 Change in Adjusted Share* 2020–2021
1 United States of America (USA) 20626.94 19857.80 28214 -6.3% Decrease
2 China 14259.82 16798.66 21462 14.6% Increase
3 Germany 4754.15 4847.90 9451 -0.8% Decrease
4 United Kingdom (UK) 3884.06 3760.09 8140 -5.8% Decrease
5 Japan 3271.63 3193.18 5205 -5.0% Decrease
6 France 2224.11 2155.63 4938 -5.7% Decrease
7 Canada 1624.29 1597.87 3521 -4.3% Decrease
8 South Korea 1517.47 1594.17 2608 2.2% Increase
9 Switzerland 1443.96 1457.31 3386 -1.8% Decrease
10 Australia 1313.59 1299.87 3076 -3.7% Decrease
11 India 1035.63 1228.73 1911 15.4% Increase
12 Italy 1133.35 1179.45 2988 1.2% Increase
13 Spain 1239.02 1147.86 2861 -9.9% Decrease
14 Netherlands 969.34 937.83 2440 -5.9% Decrease
15 Sweden 700.11 688.13 2004 -4.4% Decrease
16 Israel 644.60 673.05 1347 1.6% Increase
17 Singapore 635.09 619.58 1337 -5.1% Decrease
18 Russia 534.07 554.08 1523 0.9% Increase
19 Denmark 408.20 436.95 1309 4.1% Increase
20 Belgium 432.54 429.24 1200 -3.5% Decrease
21 Taiwan 420.66 418.03 1005 -3.3% Decrease
22 Austria 378.44 388.65 1245 -0.1% Decrease
23 Brazil 308.17 312.61 928 -1.3% Decrease
24 Poland 271.15 288.59 895 3.5% Increase
25 Finland 212.02 220.51 757 1.2% Increase
26 Czech Republic 222.37 212.64 756 -7.0% Decrease
27 Norway 215.26 194.53 750 -12.1% Decrease
28 Portugal 151.01 168.29 580 8.4% Increase
29 Chile 131.99 128.80 452 -5.1% Decrease
30 Saudi Arabia 138.43 126.11 450 -11.4% Decrease
31 New Zealand 133.50 114.45 388 -16.6% Decrease
32 Iran 105.24 112.18 271 3.7% Increase
33 Mexico 106.37 109.29 429 0.0% Increase
34 Ireland 136.25 104.37 426 -25.5% Decrease
35 Greece 89.01 101.99 402 11.5% Increase
36 Argentina 115.33 96.79 322 -18.4% Decrease
37 Hungary 106.46 95.74 409 -12.5% Decrease
38 Turkey 71.51 92.06 387 25.2% Increase
39 South Africa 85.02 89.34 430 2.2% Increase
40 Thailand 49.34 65.25 276 28.7% Increase
41 Slovenia 49.67 46.24 209 -9.4% Decrease
42 Estonia 23.63 39.08 190 60.9% Increase
43 United Arab Emirates 27.10 29.16 116 4.7% Increase
44 Colombia 21.00 27.14 241 25.8% Increase
45 Pakistan 18.95 26.92 179 38.2% Increase
46 Vietnam 26.17 26.54 102 -1.3% Decrease
47 Croatia 31.04 25.06 172 -21.5% Decrease
48 Iceland 28.76 24.53 90 -17.0% Decrease
49 Slovakia 18.93 23.32 161 19.9% Increase
50 Romania 21.03 22.33 211 3.3% Increase

Footnote

Each year, the Nature Index publishes tables based on counts of high-quality research outputs in the previous calendar year. Users please note:

  1. The data behind the tables are based on a relatively small proportion of total research papers, they cover the natural sciences and health sciences only and outputs are non-normalized (that is, they don’t reflect the size of the country or institution, or its overall research output).
  2. The Nature Index is one indicator of institutional research performance. The metrics of Count and Share used to order Nature Index listings are based on an institution’s or country’s publication output in 145 natural-science and health-science journals. The journals were selected on reputation by an independent panel of leading scientists in their fields. The list is reviewed periodically and journals may be removed or added. Articles from eLife were no longer included in the Nature Index from 2023 after the journal changed its publishing model.
  3. Nature Index recognizes that many other factors must be taken into account when considering research quality and institutional performance; Nature Index metrics alone should not be used to assess institutions or individuals.
  4. Nature Index data and methods are transparent and available under a creative commons licence at nature.com/nature-index/.
  5. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The Nature Index database undergoes regular updating, corrections, adjustment of institutional hierarchies, and removal of retracted papers and thus the live website can differ from the frozen research leaders.