Review Articles

  • Review Article |

    A review of studies on exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations in air suggests that health damages, such as inflammation or reductions in cognitive abilities, can occur at levels as low as 1,000 ppm.

    • Tyler A. Jacobson
    • , Jasdeep S. Kler
    • , Michael T. Hernke
    • , Rudolf K. Braun
    • , Keith C. Meyer
    •  & William E. Funk
  • Review Article |

    Ozone depletion has altered conditions at the Earth’s surface and interacts with climate change. This Review assesses the effects on humans and ecosystems, including implications for food and water security, and the mitigating and ongoing influence of the Montreal Protocol.

    • Paul W. Barnes
    • , Craig E. Williamson
    • , Robyn M. Lucas
    • , Sharon A. Robinson
    • , Sasha Madronich
    • , Nigel D. Paul
    • , Janet F. Bornman
    • , Alkiviadis F. Bais
    • , Barbara Sulzberger
    • , Stephen R. Wilson
    • , Anthony L. Andrady
    • , Richard L. McKenzie
    • , Patrick J. Neale
    • , Amy T. Austin
    • , Germar H. Bernhard
    • , Keith R. Solomon
    • , Rachel E. Neale
    • , Paul J. Young
    • , Mary Norval
    • , Lesley E. Rhodes
    • , Samuel Hylander
    • , Kevin C. Rose
    • , Janice Longstreth
    • , Pieter J. Aucamp
    • , Carlos L. Ballaré
    • , Rose M. Cory
    • , Stephan D. Flint
    • , Frank R. de Gruijl
    • , Donat-P. Häder
    • , Anu M. Heikkilä
    • , Marcel A. K. Jansen
    • , Krishna K. Pandey
    • , T. Matthew Robson
    • , Craig A. Sinclair
    • , Sten-Åke Wängberg
    • , Robert C. Worrest
    • , Seyhan Yazar
    • , Antony R. Young
    •  & Richard G. Zepp
  • Review Article |

    Population growth and economic development affect and are affected by infectious diseases and food production. This Review synthesizes understanding about the links between emerging infectious diseases and food production, finding strong associations worldwide.

    • Jason R. Rohr
    • , Christopher B. Barrett
    • , David J. Civitello
    • , Meggan E. Craft
    • , Bryan Delius
    • , Giulio A. DeLeo
    • , Peter J. Hudson
    • , Nicolas Jouanard
    • , Karena H. Nguyen
    • , Richard S. Ostfeld
    • , Justin V. Remais
    • , Gilles Riveau
    • , Susanne H. Sokolow
    •  & David Tilman
  • Review Article |

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and other high-level agreements acknowledge the linked nature of social and biophysical systems. This Review explains one research tradition, sociometabolic research, that explores these links. Sociometabolic research uses methods from systems science and allied areas to study the biophysical basis of economic activity. The authors use tangible examples from recent research to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses and then explore future directions.

    • Helmut Haberl
    • , Dominik Wiedenhofer
    • , Stefan Pauliuk
    • , Fridolin Krausmann
    • , Daniel B. Müller
    •  & Marina Fischer-Kowalski
  • Review Article |

    The value of ecosystem services in cities around the world is highly uncertain. This Review focuses on ten of the most commonly cited urban ecosystem services and presents a synthesis of the scholarship on the factors that moderate the value and equitable distribution of such services.

    • Bonnie L. Keeler
    • , Perrine Hamel
    • , Timon McPhearson
    • , Maike H. Hamann
    • , Marie L. Donahue
    • , Kelly A. Meza Prado
    • , Katie K. Arkema
    • , Gregory N. Bratman
    • , Kate A. Brauman
    • , Jacques C. Finlay
    • , Anne D. Guerry
    • , Sarah E. Hobbie
    • , Justin A. Johnson
    • , Graham K. MacDonald
    • , Robert I. McDonald
    • , Nick Neverisky
    •  & Spencer A. Wood
  • Review Article |

    The wastewater treatment industry contributes approximately 1.6% of greenhouse gas emissions. This Review analyses alternative wastewater treatment pathways for simultaneous CO2 capture and utilization and shows the multiple benefits of microbial electrochemical and phototrophic processes.

    • Lu Lu
    • , Jeremy S. Guest
    • , Catherine A. Peters
    • , Xiuping Zhu
    • , Greg H. Rau
    •  & Zhiyong Jason Ren
  • Review Article |

    Resistance to antimicrobials and pesticides — collectively, biocides — undermines human health and food production. This Review assesses options for governing and promoting susceptibility to biocides to remain within the planet’s safe operating space.

    • Peter Søgaard Jørgensen
    • , Athena Aktipis
    • , Zachary Brown
    • , Yves Carrière
    • , Sharon Downes
    • , Robert R. Dunn
    • , Graham Epstein
    • , George B. Frisvold
    • , David Hawthorne
    • , Yrjö T. Gröhn
    • , Govind Tikaramsa Gujar
    • , Dušan Jasovský
    • , Eili Y. Klein
    • , Franziska Klein
    • , Guillaume Lhermie
    • , David Mota-Sanchez
    • , Celso Omoto
    • , Maja Schlüter
    • , H. Morgan Scott
    • , Didier Wernli
    •  & Scott P. Carroll
  • Review Article |

    The interaction between land degradation and the livelihoods of the poor is complex and conditioned by important economic, social and environmental factors. These factors are also in part responsible for the limited success of economic growth policies to reduce poverty.

    • Edward B. Barbier
    •  & Jacob P. Hochard
  • Review Article |

    In this Review, the authors discuss challenges and opportunities for the use of social-media data in sustainability research and practice at the city level, and identify useful directions for future research.

    • Rositsa T. Ilieva
    •  & Timon McPhearson
  • Review Article |

    Sustainability challenges, such as feeding people with fewer resources, involve challenges at the nexus of multiple issues, such as food, water and energy. This Review explores such nexus approaches, surveying their use towards sustainable development challenges, discussing examples, and proposing a systematic procedure and future directions.

    • Jianguo Liu
    • , Vanessa Hull
    • , H. Charles J. Godfray
    • , David Tilman
    • , Peter Gleick
    • , Holger Hoff
    • , Claudia Pahl-Wostl
    • , Zhenci Xu
    • , Min Gon Chung
    • , Jing Sun
    •  & Shuxin Li
  • Review Article |

    Climate change and intensive agricultural management will interact to increase nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture. This Review analyses the processes underlying potential agricultural N responses to climate change, proposes a set of principles to help decrease N losses in the future and describes the economic factors that could affect their implementation.

    • Timothy M. Bowles
    • , Shady S. Atallah
    • , Eleanor E. Campbell
    • , Amélie C. M. Gaudin
    • , William R. Wieder
    •  & A. Stuart Grandy
  • Review Article |

    A comprehensive review of studies about the impact of agricultural intensification on both human well-being and ecosystem services shows mixed evidence, which depends mostly on previous land use, the sort of intensification, and what specific outcomes are measured.

    • Laura Vang Rasmussen
    • , Brendan Coolsaet
    • , Adrian Martin
    • , Ole Mertz
    • , Unai Pascual
    • , Esteve Corbera
    • , Neil Dawson
    • , Janet A. Fisher
    • , Phil Franks
    •  & Casey M. Ryan
  • Review Article |

    Ensuring human well-being within the limits of the natural world over time requires designing for sustainability. This Review analyses the extent to which cognitive biases can either limit or help such design. It also suggests possible changes to the decision settings of engineers as new ways to achieve sustainability.

    • Leidy Klotz
    • , Elke Weber
    • , Eric Johnson
    • , Tripp Shealy
    • , Morela Hernandez
    •  & Bethany Gordon
  • Review Article |

    Despite recent technological progress, providing safe, clean and sufficient water sustainably for all remains challenging. This Review assesses the potential applications of nanomaterials in advancing the sustainability of water treatment systems, and their associated barriers.

    • Meagan S. Mauter
    • , Ines Zucker
    • , François Perreault
    • , Jay R. Werber
    • , Jae-Hong Kim
    •  & Menachem Elimelech