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  • The sustainability discourse is at risk of remaining too shallow to achieve necessary change. This Perspective argues not just for a commitment to transdisciplinarity but also a deeper understanding of the capabilities and failings of science in understanding the relationship between the human and natural worlds.

    • Daniel Niles
    • Narifumi Tachimoto
  • The decades-long movement for sustainable seafood is centred on a ‘theory of change’ that emphasizes third-party initiatives for certification and consumer signalling. The evolution of that theory, and its potential futures, shows the challenges of management and co-ordination with multiple actors.

    • C. A. Roheim
    • S. R. Bush
    • H. Uchida
  • A shift away from fossil fuel subsidies to carbon pricing could generate revenues to finance progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. This Perspective shows that in many low-income countries, as private sources of finance are limited, revenues from carbon taxes could be a particularly attractive policy option for financing the SDGs.

    • Max Franks
    • Kai Lessmann
    • Ottmar Edenhofer
  • Most of the sustainability challenges and opportunities associated with urbanization are found in the global south. This Perspective shows the extent to which urban issues differ between the developed and developing worlds and identifies steps to re-focus the urban research system globally in view of allowing a more prominent role of urban scholarship from the global south.

    • Harini Nagendra
    • Xuemei Bai
    • Shuaib Lwasa
  • Theories of cultural evolution can help explain how norms that are externally enforced are internalized to become intrinsic motivations to behave sustainably. This knowledge is useful for developing interventions for behavioural change.

    • Taylor Davis
    • Erin P. Hennes
    • Leigh Raymond
  • For natural capital like wetlands, biodiversity and land productive capacity, ‘no net loss’ is becoming a policy goal. This study highlights that the intended outcomes of no net loss policies can be very different depending on the reference scenario.

    • Martine Maron
    • Susie Brownlie
    • Ascelin Gordon