Reviews & Analysis

Filter By:

  • The development of therapeutics for central nervous system disorders suffers from high failure rates owing to poor blood–brain barrier penetration and lack of targeted delivery. This Review discusses how nanoparticles can help to overcome these challenges to enable precision targeting of the brain for different central nervous system diseases.

    • Jingjing Gao
    • Ziting (Judy) Xia
    • Nitin Joshi
    Review Article
  • CO2 electroreduction aims to decarbonize converting CO2 and clean energy into chemicals. To have an impact, this technology should be scaled up into the gigatonne conversion range. In this Review, the authors analyse challenges related to resource and material scalability bottlenecks to enable the sustainable deployment of CO2 electroreduction.

    • Blanca Belsa
    • Lu Xia
    • F. Pelayo García de Arquer
    Review Article
  • More than 40 years after the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, the investigation of new variants of this phenomenon and of the exotic physics they represent is still a lively research topic. In this Viewpoint, five scientists involved in the very recent discovery of a new type of Hall effect — the fractional quantum anomalous Hall effect — discuss their results and their implications.

    • Long Ju
    • Allan H. MacDonald
    • Xiaodong Xu
  • Chronic wounds, a global health crisis, demand innovative approaches for healing and monitoring. This Review explores the progression of wound care, highlighting advanced biomaterials, emerging technologies and the intricate process of transforming laboratory breakthroughs into clinically applied solutions.

    • Canran Wang
    • Ehsan Shirzaei Sani
    • Wei Gao
    Review Article
  • Space exploration amplifies medical risks to human health. Innovation in space medicine, drug delivery, regenerative medicine and 3D printing is key for astronaut health. This Perspective explores advanced material technologies for space health care and their applicability to terrestrial medicine.

    • Corrine Ying Xuan Chua
    • Miguel Jimenez
    • Alessandro Grattoni
  • Moiré materials are an emerging class of strongly correlated quantum materials designed by the rotational or lattice misalignment of 2D crystals. This Review discusses how local probe techniques are uniquely positioned to elucidate the microscopic mechanisms underlying the electronic phases in moiré materials.

    • Kevin P. Nuckolls
    • Ali Yazdani
    Review Article
  • Edible robots and robotic food that perceive, process and react to stimuli offer opportunities to develop new medical applications, emergency food-delivery systems, waste-reduction strategies in farming and novel gastronomic experiences. This Perspective surveys edible materials that can be used to manufacture robotic components and discusses examples of edible robots and robotic food.

    • Dario Floreano
    • Bokeon Kwak
    • Remko M. Boom
  • Developing vaccines for glioblastoma remains challenging owing to the immunosuppressive microenvironment of the tumour and the presence of the blood–brain barrier. In this Perspective, we explore how nanomaterials can be tailored to address the limitations of glioblastoma vaccination, potentially paving the way for important advancements.

    • Fatima Hameedat
    • Bárbara B. Mendes
    • Flávia Sousa
  • Inverted (p–i–n) perovskite solar cells are promising candidates for real-life applications. This Review discusses the current status of this technology, key strategies for stability and efficiency improvements — from the materials selection to interface engineering and device construction — and future outlooks.

    • Qi Jiang
    • Kai Zhu
    Review Article
  • Liquid-metal-based magnetic fluids exhibit rich electromagnetic, thermofluidic behaviours, leading to emerging applications in soft robotics, stretchable electronics, energy management and biomedical technology. This Review covers the fabrication, properties and applications of liquid-metal-based magnetic fluids, highlighting their superiority over traditional magnetic fluids.

    • Wentao Xiang
    • Yongyu Lu
    • Jing Liu
    Review Article
  • The family of AV3Sb5 kagome superconductors provides a fascinating platform for the investigation of the interplay between superconductivity and charge-density wave order. This Review discusses the properties of the anomalous charge-density wave and superconducting states observed in these materials and surveys future directions in the study of these and related kagome metals.

    • Stephen D. Wilson
    • Brenden R. Ortiz
    Review Article
  • Hydrogels are promising in various fields, but improving their mechanical properties is critical for certain applications. This Review comprehensively explores design principles to construct hydrogels with superior mechanical strength, toughness and fatigue resistance, and discusses self-growing and self-reinforced hydrogels.

    • Xueyu Li
    • Jian Ping Gong
    Review Article
  • Nonlinear optical interactions can be substantially enhanced by the wavelength-scale confinement in integrated photonics, providing transformative capabilities for controlling, enhancing and manipulating material nonlinearities in miniaturized platforms. In this Review, we outline the design principles that harness the potential of nonlinear optical materials on integrated platforms and their utility in applications including broadband frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, quantum light sources and nonlinear optical quantum logic gates.

    • Avik Dutt
    • Aseema Mohanty
    • Michal Lipson
    Review Article
  • Harvesting freshwater from the air using water sorption materials is an innovative strategy to address water scarcity. This Review offers a multiscale perspective to design the next generation of sorption-based atmospheric water harvesting technology by bridging materials innovations to device realization and provides practical guidelines to understand its real-world impact.

    • Yang Zhong
    • Lenan Zhang
    • Evelyn N. Wang
    Review Article
  • Moiré materials are a versatile and tunable platform that offers a wide variety of lattice constants, energy scales and symmetries, leading to a rich interplay of electron correlations and topology. This Review summarizes recent breakthroughs in topological and Berry physics in moiré materials.

    • Pratap Chandra Adak
    • Subhajit Sinha
    • Mandar M. Deshmukh
    Review Article
  • Memristive devices are emerging within the semiconductor industry. Solution-processed memristors present alternatives for flexible, transparent and low-cost applications. This Perspective reviews solution-processed memristors focusing on the reliability of their electrical performance, aiming to increase impact and technology readiness.

    • Sebastian Pazos
    • Xiangming Xu
    • Mario Lanza
  • Interlayer hybridization in van der Waals stacks is key to understanding their physical properties. This Perspective article discusses the various parameters influencing interlayer hybridization and how they can be controlled, providing a comprehensive guide for designing materials with desired properties.

    • Elyse Barré
    • Medha Dandu
    • Archana Raja
  • Solid-state lithium metal batteries have the potential to meet energy density and safety requirements that current commercial Li-ion batteries cannot. Given their solid-state components, these batteries are subject to — and strongly affected by — external pressure during their manufacturing and operation. This Review examines the relationship between external pressure and electrochemical behaviour in these batteries.

    • Xia Hu
    • Zhijia Zhang
    • Doron Aurbach
    Review Article
  • High-entropy materials (HEMs) are characterized by their high configurational entropy, providing unique property-tuning capabilities for a variety of applications. This Perspective discusses the potential of HEMs for applications in energy storage, energy conversion and electronics.

    • Simon Schweidler
    • Miriam Botros
    • Ben Breitung
  • Cost and performance analysis, if applied properly, can guide the research of new energy storage materials. In three case studies on sodium-ion batteries, this Perspective illustrates how to implement this type of analysis at the battery material discovery phase to identify the most promising active materials and treatments.

    • Alessandro Innocenti
    • Simon Beringer
    • Stefano Passerini