Reviews & Analysis

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  • Weyl fermions have yet to be observed as elementary particles but can be realized in topological quantum materials. This Review discusses the theoretical and experimental discovery of emergent Weyl fermions, high-fold chiral fermions, topological Weyl lines and related Dirac phases.

    • M. Zahid Hasan
    • Guoqing Chang
    • Jia-Xin Yin
    Review Article
  • Defect-based spin qubits offer a versatile platform for creating solid-state quantum devices. This Review is a guide for understanding the properties and applications of current spin defects, and provides a framework for designing, engineering and discovering new qubit candidates

    • Gary Wolfowicz
    • F. Joseph Heremans
    • David D. Awschalom
    Review Article
  • Osmotic energy conversion is a promising renewable energy source. This Review discusses nanofluidics-based osmotic energy conversion systems, investigating the principles of ion diffusion in nanofluidic systems, optimization of membrane architectures to increase energy conversion and possible integration with other technologies, such as water splitting.

    • Zhen Zhang
    • Liping Wen
    • Lei Jiang
    Review Article
  • Phase transformations in 2D materials have distinct kinetic and thermodynamic features, resulting from their reduced dimensionality and unique interactions. This Review discusses the properties of phase transitions and defects in 2D materials, and examines technological applications and challenges in the study of 2D phase transitions.

    • Wenbin Li
    • Xiaofeng Qian
    • Ju Li
    Review Article
  • Single-supermolecule electronics focuses not only on charge transport within individual supermolecules but also on the weak non-covalent interactions between components of supermolecules and mechanically interlocked molecules. This Review surveys the use of non-covalent interactions in the construction of electronic devices.

    • Hongliang Chen
    • J. Fraser Stoddart
    Review Article
  • Trapped-ion qubits have great potential for quantum computation, but materials improvements are needed. This Review surveys materials opportunities to improve the performance of trapped-ion qubits, from understanding the surface science that leads to electric-field noise to developing methods for building ion traps with integrated optics and electronics.

    • Kenneth R. Brown
    • John Chiaverini
    • Hartmut Häffner
    Review Article
  • Composites made from metal–organic frameworks and polymer fibres are gaining popularity in many applications because of their tailorable morphologies and properties. This Review summarizes various methods for fabricating these composites, explores structure–processing–activity relationships and discusses future research opportunities.

    • Gregory W. Peterson
    • Dennis T. Lee
    • Gregory N. Parsons
    Review Article
  • Halide perovskites exhibit outstanding semiconductor properties and are a key component of a variety of devices, including solar cells and light-emitting diodes. This Review discusses electrical doping strategies for halide perovskites and takes a critical look at the challenges that need to be overcome to control the electronic properties of these semiconducting materials.

    • Julie Euvrard
    • Yanfa Yan
    • David B. Mitzi
    Review Article
  • High-temperature superconducting materials are finding their way into numerous energy applications. This Review discusses processing methods for the fabrication of REBCO (REBa2Cu3O7−δ) coated conductors, investigating the relation between performance and fabrication method, reviewing existing and new routes to improved performance and outlining emerging and future applications.

    • Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll
    • Stuart C. Wimbush
    Review Article
  • Polarons — quasiparticles arising from the interaction of electrons with lattice vibrations — strongly influence materials properties. This Review provides a map of the theoretical models and experimental techniques used to study polarons in materials, presenting paradigmatic examples of different types of polarons and polaron-driven phenomena.

    • Cesare Franchini
    • Michele Reticcioli
    • Ulrike Diebold
    Review Article
  • Artificial structures with novel thermal properties are promising for heat-transfer applications. This Review provides an overview of thermal metamaterials and devices, discussing the working principles underlying the manipulation of thermal conduction and radiation at different length scales.

    • Ying Li
    • Wei Li
    • Cheng-Wei Qiu
    Review Article
  • The development of structural design methodologies in reticular chemistry promotes the discovery of periodic solids, such as metal–organic frameworks. In this Review, we highlight the well-developed and cutting-edge structural design methodologies, focusing on the role of building blocks, targeted nets and isoreticular chemistry.

    • Hao Jiang
    • Dalal Alezi
    • Mohamed Eddaoudi
    Review Article
  • Moiré systems formed by 2D atomic layers have widely tunable electrical and optical properties and host exotic, strongly correlated and topological phenomena, including superconductivity, correlated insulator states and orbital magnetism. In this Viewpoint, researchers studying different aspects of moiré materials discuss the most exciting directions in this rapidly expanding field.

    • Eva Y. Andrei
    • Dmitri K. Efetov
    • Andrea F. Young
    Viewpoint
  • Active liquid crystals are a particular type of active materials in which an inherent structural anisotropy leads to long-range order and topological defects. This Review discusses natural and synthetic active liquid crystals, and explores their autonomous behaviour as well as potential applications.

    • Rui Zhang
    • Ali Mozaffari
    • Juan J. de Pablo
    Review Article
  • Organoids are cellular 3D models of organs, which provide powerful in vitro platforms for the investigation of tissue and disease biology. In this Review, the authors investigate engineering approaches, including cellular engineering, designer matrices and microfluidics, to improve the reproducibility and physiological relevance of organoids.

    • Moritz Hofer
    • Matthias P. Lutolf
    Review Article
  • Colloidal quantum dots are promising materials for realizing versatile, wavelength-tunable, solution-processed lasers. This Review surveys recent advances in colloidal quantum dot lasing, provides an in-depth analysis of outstanding challenges and discusses a path forward to implementing technologically viable lasing devices.

    • Young-Shin Park
    • Jeongkyun Roh
    • Victor I. Klimov
    Review Article
  • Incorporating the mechanical bond into polymer architectures allows access to polymers with high-mobility elements, leading to unique material properties. This Review outlines the structure–property relationships of materials based on either polyrotaxanes (including slide-ring materials and daisy-chain polymers) or polycatenanes, and looks towards future applications and technologies.

    • Laura F. Hart
    • Jerald E. Hertzog
    • Stuart J. Rowan
    Review Article
  • The reversibility of transition-metal coordination bonds affords broad control over the structural dynamics of materials. This Review surveys the design principles underlying the utilization of this dynamic crosslink chemistry to engineer tunable mechanical properties in biological materials and protein and polymer hydrogels.

    • Eesha Khare
    • Niels Holten-Andersen
    • Markus J. Buehler
    Review Article
  • Precision medicine identifies the optimal treatment strategy for an individual patient. Such personalized therapies can be greatly improved by targeted drug delivery approaches. This Review investigates the integration of targeted drugs, in particular, kinase inhibitors, with targeted drug delivery systems.

    • Mandana T. Manzari
    • Yosi Shamay
    • Daniel A. Heller
    Review Article
  • Artificial channels that selectively transport small molecules at the sub-nanometre scale are used in many applications, but, in particular, in molecular separation. This Review discusses the design of channels, nanostructure, fabrication and mass-transport mechanisms, as well as outlining promising applications and the challenges ahead.

    • Jie Shen
    • Gongping Liu
    • Wanqin Jin
    Review Article