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  • Deaf scientists who use American Sign Language need to be able to communicate specialized concepts with ease. In this Viewpoint, four deaf scientists — a quantum physicist, a marine ecologist, an immunologist and an organic chemist — discuss their experiences in developing scientific lexicons and the resulting shift in their science communication.

    • Colin P. Lualdi
    • Barbara Spiecker
    • Kaitlyn Clark
  • Exascale computers — supercomputers that can perform 1018 floating point operations per second — started coming online in 2022: in the United States, Frontier launched as the first public exascale supercomputer and Aurora is due to open soon; OceanLight and Tianhe-3 are operational in China; and JUPITER is due to launch in 2023 in Europe. Supercomputers offer unprecedented opportunities for modelling complex materials. In this Viewpoint, five researchers working on different types of materials discuss the most promising directions in computational materials science.

    • Choongseok Chang
    • Volker L. Deringer
    • Christopher M. Wolverton
  • Solution-processable semiconductors based on small molecules, polymers or halide perovskites combine sustainable manufacturing with exceptional optoelectronic properties that can be chemically tailored to achieve flexible and highly efficient optoelectronic and photonic devices. A new exciting research direction is the study of the influence of chirality on light–matter interactions in these soft materials and its exploitation for the simultaneous control of charge, spin and light. In this Viewpoint, researchers working on different types of chiral semiconductors discuss the most interesting directions in this rapidly expanding field.

    • Jeanne Crassous
    • Matthew J. Fuchter
    • Sascha Feldmann
  • Materials for extreme environments can help to protect people, structures and the planet. Extreme temperatures in aeroplane engines, hypervelocity micrometeoroid impacts on satellites, high-speed machining of ceramics and strong radiation doses in nuclear reactors are just some examples of extreme conditions that materials need to withstand. In this Viewpoint, experts working on materials for different types of extreme environments discuss the most exciting advances, opportunities and bottlenecks in their fields.

    • Suhas Eswarappa Prameela
    • Tresa M. Pollock
    • Lori Graham-Brady
  • Scientific visibility is key to an academic career and rooted in the traditional academic cycle of training, (informal) connections, support, publications, citations, recognition and funding — a cycle from which under-represented groups are often excluded. In this Viewpoint, five scientists discuss experiences and thoughts about disparities in scientific visibility and provide action points.

    • Tejal A. Desai
    • Omolola Eniola-Adefeso
    • Princess Imoukhuede
  • Moiré systems formed by 2D atomic layers have widely tunable electrical and optical properties and host exotic, strongly correlated and topological phenomena, including superconductivity, correlated insulator states and orbital magnetism. In this Viewpoint, researchers studying different aspects of moiré materials discuss the most exciting directions in this rapidly expanding field.

    • Eva Y. Andrei
    • Dmitri K. Efetov
    • Andrea F. Young