Browse Articles

  • Review Article |

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is highly sought after for mid-IR nanophotonics, nonlinear and quantum optics, and as an efficient UV emitter. This Review surveys its fundamental physical properties, applications and synthesis.

    • Joshua D. Caldwell
    • , Igor Aharonovich
    • , Guillaume Cassabois
    • , James H. Edgar
    • , Bernard Gil
    •  & D. N. Basov
  • In the Classroom |

    Inspiration from superhero comics can help in the design of physics problems that are fun to solve and stimulate the students’ ability to analyse real-life situations in which several phenomena are at play.

    • James Kakalios
  • Review Article |

    Despite their excellent macroscopic operational parameters, halide perovskites exhibit heterogeneity in materials properties at all lateral and vertical length scales. In this Review, we discuss the nature of heterogeneity in halide perovskites and assess the impact of these non-uniformities on their optoelectronic properties and how the heterogeneity may even be beneficial for device properties.

    • Elizabeth M. Tennyson
    • , Tiarnan A. S. Doherty
    •  & Samuel D. Stranks
  • Review Article |

    Materials with vanishingly small dielectric permittivity, known as epsilon-near-zero materials, enable strong ultrafast optical nonlinear responses within a sub-wavelength propagation length. This Review surveys the various observations of nonlinear phenomena in this class of materials.

    • Orad Reshef
    • , Israel De Leon
    • , M. Zahirul Alam
    •  & Robert W. Boyd
  • Review Article |

    High-entropy alloys have greatly expanded the compositional space for alloy design. In this Review, the authors discuss model high-entropy alloys with interesting properties, the physical mechanisms responsible for their behaviour and fruitful ways to probe and discover new materials in the vast compositional space that remains to be explored.

    • Easo P. George
    • , Dierk Raabe
    •  & Robert O. Ritchie
  • Perspective |

    Electron beams in a transmission electron microscope can be used to manipulate matter atom-by-atom. This Review surveys the recent advances and discusses how the further development and integration of machine learning, theory, feedback and instrumentation will push the field forward.

    • Ondrej Dyck
    • , Maxim Ziatdinov
    • , David B. Lingerfelt
    • , Raymond R. Unocic
    • , Bethany M. Hudak
    • , Andrew R. Lupini
    • , Stephen Jesse
    •  & Sergei V. Kalinin
  • Review Article |

    Topological nanomaterials exhibit enhanced topological surface states and are thus promising for next-generation electronic devices and quantum computations. This Review discusses synthesis and transport results of topological nanomaterials, with a special focus on 1D topological superconductivity realized using topological insulator nanowires.

    • Pengzi Liu
    • , James R. Williams
    •  & Judy J. Cha
  • Editorial |

    The first clinical success of immunotherapeutics for cancer treatment and the appreciation that tissue regeneration can be greatly improved by precisely and locally modulating the immune response are evidence that immunotherapy is poised to revolutionize the way we treat disease.

  • Review Article |

    Supramolecular gels comprise low-molecular weight gelators that assemble by non-covalent interactions. In this Review, a range of fabrication methods, as well as strategies for shaping, structuring and patterning supramolecular gels are discussed.

    • Phillip R. A. Chivers
    •  & David K. Smith
  • Comment |

    European accelerator-based X-ray facilities came together in 2017 in a consortium that will use their combined expertise to accelerate discoveries, secure funding and guide policy. A year and a half later, the chair of the consortium Helmut Dosch reflects on the ambition and opportunities of this type of cooperation.

    • Helmut Dosch
  • Review Article |

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that causes the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, which results in an insulin deficiency. In this Review, the authors discuss immunomodulatory biomaterials for β-cell replacement and for the induction of tolerogenic immune responses to prevent, delay or reverse the disease.

    • C. L. Stabler
    • , Y. Li
    • , J. M. Stewart
    •  & B. G. Keselowsky
  • Research Highlight |

    • Christine-Maria Horejs
  • Review Article |

    Nanoscale and microscale materials can be used as drug delivery vehicles to target specific lymph node-resident cell subtypes for immunotherapy. In this Review, the authors discuss the transport mechanisms to and from lymph nodes and how they can be explored for drug delivery.

    • Alex Schudel
    • , David M. Francis
    •  & Susan N. Thomas
  • Review Article |

    Cancer nanomedicine in combination with immunotherapies offers the possibility to amplify antitumour immune responses and to sensitize tumours to immunotherapies. In this Review, the authors discuss combination immunotherapy based on nanoparticle platforms designed for chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiotherapy and gene therapy.

    • Jutaek Nam
    • , Sejin Son
    • , Kyung Soo Park
    • , Weiping Zou
    • , Lonnie D. Shea
    •  & James J. Moon
  • Review Article |

    Macroscale delivery devices can be used to manipulate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this Review, the authors highlight important cellular targets of immunotherapies in tissue repair and cancer and discuss macroscale biomaterials strategies for therapeutic immunomodulation.

    • Maxence O. Dellacherie
    • , Bo Ri Seo
    •  & David J. Mooney
  • Comment |

    Materials research is poised to play a pivotal role in addressing the grand challenges faced by society, from engineering better medicines to providing accessible clean water and renewable energy. However, complex problems require diverse teams. Therefore, there is an urgent need to address the diversity gap in materials science and engineering, especially for women.

    • April M. Kloxin
  • An Audience With |

    Georg Bednorz, together with Karl Alexander Müller, discovered high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) in ceramics, for which they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987. Christine Horejs talks to Georg Bednorz about the successes and challenges of his research on HTS, applications of HTS materials, and the key ingredients for scientific discoveries.

  • Review Article |

    Recent breakthroughs in crystal structure prediction have enabled the discovery of new materials and of new physical and chemical phenomena. This Review surveys structure prediction methods and presents examples of results in different classes of materials.

    • Artem R. Oganov
    • , Chris J. Pickard
    • , Qiang Zhu
    •  & Richard J. Needs
  • Perspective |

    Nucleic acid scaffolds can be precisely interfaced with cellular components, making them interesting materials to probe and program immune cells. In this Perspective, the authors explore nucleic acid technologies for the quantitative detection of single immune cells and for modulating the immune response.

    • Maulik S. Jani
    • , Aneesh T. Veetil
    •  & Yamuna Krishnan
  • Review Article |

    Engineering immune cells and organs using materials enables the investigation of immune responses and the development of immunotherapies. In this Review, the authors discuss 2D and 3D approaches to recreate key cell-level, tissue-level and organ-level immune functionalities of primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs.

    • Sungwoong Kim
    • , Shivem B. Shah
    • , Pamela L. Graney
    •  & Ankur Singh
  • Review Article |

    Polymers are ubiquitous in batteries as binders, separators, electrolytes and electrode coatings. In this Review, we discuss the principles underlying the design of polymers with advanced functionalities to enable progress in battery engineering, with a specific focus on silicon, lithium-metal and sulfur battery chemistries.

    • Jeffrey Lopez
    • , David G. Mackanic
    • , Yi Cui
    •  & Zhenan Bao
  • Review Article |

    The mechanical properties of blood play an important role in determining blood behaviour in health and disease. In this Review, the authors discuss materials for the recreation of the microenvironment of blood cells and the concept of mechanical homeostasis in blood vessels, blood and blood clots.

    • Yongzhi Qiu
    • , David R. Myers
    •  & Wilbur A. Lam
  • Analysis |

    Nearly all types of solar photovoltaic cells and technologies have developed dramatically, especially in the past 5 years. Here, we critically compare the different types of photovoltaic technologies, analyse the performance of the different cells and appraise possibilities for future technological progress.

    • Pabitra K. Nayak
    • , Suhas Mahesh
    • , Henry J. Snaith
    •  & David Cahen
  • Review Article |

    Oxide superlattices reveal emergent phenomena if the balance between competing degrees of freedom is altered. In this Review, synthetic approaches to tap the properties of competing ground states are described, focusing on two examples — one example yielding a room-temperature multiferroic and a second producing polarization skyrmions.

    • Ramamoorthy Ramesh
    •  & Darrell G. Schlom
  • Review Article |

    Ferroelectrics-based materials can display a negative capacitance (NC) effect, providing an opportunity to implement NC in electronic circuits to improve their performance. In this Review, the authors discuss static and transient NC responses in ferroelectrics and highlight proof-of-concept experiments and possibilities for device implementation.

    • Jorge Íñiguez
    • , Pavlo Zubko
    • , Igor Luk’yanchuk
    •  & Andrés Cano
  • Comment |

    Intelligent design of materials for biomedical applications involves the development of technologies that are informed by an understanding of biological systems. Immunoengineers have been making essential inroads in developing therapeutics endowed with designed biofunctionality, particularly in vaccinology, cancer immunotherapy and immune tolerance.

    • Elyse A. Watkins
    •  & Jeffrey A. Hubbell
  • Review Article |

    Adding a third component into a binary blend is a promising strategy for simultaneously improving all photovoltaic parameters in organic solar cells. In this Review, we discuss the role of the third component in influencing the energetics, charge-carrier recombination and stability in ternary solar cells.

    • Nicola Gasparini
    • , Alberto Salleo
    • , Iain McCulloch
    •  & Derya Baran
  • Review Article |

    This Review outlines the ability of DNA to direct the organization of particle-based building blocks into crystalline architectures. These advancements permit programmable control of each structural element of colloidal crystalline materials and enable the design of functional and responsive behaviours.

    • Christine R. Laramy
    • , Matthew N. O’Brien
    •  & Chad A. Mirkin
  • Review Article |

    Laser pulses can trigger fast changes in magnetic state, facilitating new magnetic data storage and memory devices. This Review outlines the mechanisms of all-optical switching and the materials suitable for the optical control of magnetism and tests these mechanisms and materials in terms of speed, accompanying dissipations and scalability. Finally, the large-scale integration of devices in memory applications with low-energy dissipations is discussed.

    • Alexey V. Kimel
    •  & Mo Li
  • Review Article |

    Metal halide perovskite nanostructures are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this Review, we discuss the synthesis and properties of 1D and 2D single-crystal perovskite nanostructures, examine potential optoelectronic applications and highlight recent studies in which these nanostructures have been used to study the fundamental properties of perovskites.

    • Yongping Fu
    • , Haiming Zhu
    • , Jie Chen
    • , Matthew P. Hautzinger
    • , X.-Y. Zhu
    •  & Song Jin
  • Review Article |

    Mucus is a 3D hydrogel composed of mucins that houses the human microbiome. Mucus guides microbial cell fate and is involved in the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. In this Review, the authors discuss the design of synthetic mucins for the investigation of mucus–microbiome interactions and for applications in 3D in vitro cell culture.

    • Caroline Werlang
    • , Gerardo Cárcarmo-Oyarce
    •  & Katharina Ribbeck