Browse Articles

  • Review Article |

    Metamaterials provide a platform to leverage optical signals for performing specific-purpose computational tasks with ultra-fast speeds. This Review surveys the basic principles, recent advances and promising future directions for wave-based-metamaterial analogue computing systems.

    • Farzad Zangeneh-Nejad
    • , Dimitrios L. Sounas
    • , Andrea Alù
    •  & Romain Fleury
  • Review Article |

    Materials science provides tools and technologies for the protection against viral infections, as well as for the understanding, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of viral diseases. This Review discusses present and future directions in antiviral materials-science research, with a focus on COVID-19.

    • Zhongmin Tang
    • , Na Kong
    • , Xingcai Zhang
    • , Yuan Liu
    • , Ping Hu
    • , Shan Mou
    • , Peter Liljeström
    • , Jianlin Shi
    • , Weihong Tan
    • , Jong Seung Kim
    • , Yihai Cao
    • , Robert Langer
    • , Kam W. Leong
    • , Omid C. Farokhzad
    •  & Wei Tao
  • Review Article |

    This Review discusses non-metallic charge carriers for aqueous batteries, investigating fundamental mechanisms of charge storage and electrode interactions, as well as battery design and performance.

    • Guojin Liang
    • , Funian Mo
    • , Xiulei Ji
    •  & Chunyi Zhi
  • Review Article |

    Cellulose nanocrystals are rigid rod-shaped nanoparticles that show promise as additives in composites, emulsions, foams and biomedical devices and as rheological modifiers. In this Review, the authors guide end users towards selecting cellulose sources and production routes that optimize the performance of cellulose nanocrystals in their intended application.

    • Oriana M. Vanderfleet
    •  & Emily D. Cranston
  • Review Article |

    Artificial intelligence can be used to facilitate the 3D printing of functional materials and devices directly on target surfaces, such as human bodies. This Review surveys ex situ and in situ artificial-intelligence-assisted 3D printing of multifunctional materials and its combination with surgical robots to enable autonomous medical care and smart biomanufacturing.

    • Zhijie Zhu
    • , Daniel Wai Hou Ng
    • , Hyun Soo Park
    •  & Michael C. McAlpine
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Advanced Healthcare Materials reports a tumour-on-a-chip platform for the high throughput-screening of cancer drugs.

    • Christine Horejs
  • Review Article |

    Several key industries routinely use metal printing to make complex parts that are difficult to produce by conventional manufacturing. Here, we show that a synergistic combination of metallurgy, mechanistic models and machine learning is driving the continued growth of metal printing.

    • T. DebRoy
    • , T. Mukherjee
    • , H. L. Wei
    • , J. W. Elmer
    •  & J. O. Milewski
  • Review Article |

    π-Conjugated polymers possess a wide range of useful electronic and optical properties. This Review focuses on the preparation of self-assembled nanoparticles from these materials and their applications in areas such as optoelectronics, biomedical imaging and therapy, photocatalysis and sensing.

    • Liam R. MacFarlane
    • , Huda Shaikh
    • , J. Diego Garcia-Hernandez
    • , Marcus Vespa
    • , Tomoya Fukui
    •  & Ian Manners
  • Review Article |

    The dynamic epigenetic landscape directs gene expression patterns that regulate cellular form and function. Designer cell culture materials have shed light on how materials cues influence cellular plasticity through the epigenome and directed tissue-fabrication approaches that drive biological activities.

    • Stephanie Nemec
    •  & Kristopher A. Kilian
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Communications Materials reports untethered magnetic soft robots that can perform large-degree deformations at high frequencies in low magnetic fields.

    • Christine Horejs
  • In the Classroom |

    Advanced research microscopes in universities can be used to enhance the education of STEM students, as demonstrated by initiatives at Johns Hopkins University that give students the opportunity to get hands-on experience with sophisticated microscopes.

    • Suhas Eswarappa Prameela
    • , Patricia M. McGuiggan
    • , Amy Brusini
    • , Trevor W. Glenn
    •  & Timothy P. Weihs
  • Comment |

    We must all ask ourselves critical questions about our role in the persistence of racism in academia, its effects on our colleagues and intentional actions to improve equity for all.

    • Manu O. Platt
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Physical Review X reports the first experimental measurement of the intra-atomic exchange interaction in rare-earth atoms.

    • Giulia Pacchioni
  • Review Article |

    Nanopore sensors enable the solution-based analysis of nucleic acids, proteins and other biomolecules at the single-molecule level. This Review discusses new fabrication and sensing strategies — including field-effect transistors, quantum tunnelling and optical methods — that enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of nanopores.

    • Liang Xue
    • , Hirohito Yamazaki
    • , Ren Ren
    • , Meni Wanunu
    • , Aleksandar P. Ivanov
    •  & Joshua B. Edel
  • Review Article |

    The structure of organic semiconductor thin films influences their performance in optoelectronic devices. This Review highlights how solid-state NMR techniques can be used to investigate the structure, composition and dynamics of organic semiconductors and, thus, establish structure–property relationships.

    • Martin Seifrid
    • , G. N. Manjunatha Reddy
    • , Bradley F. Chmelka
    •  & Guillermo C. Bazan
  • Review Article |

    Synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles are produced in tonnage quantities for a range of commercial uses. In this Review, the synthesis–structure–property relationships of synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles are outlined, with an emphasis on biomedical applications and environmental implications.

    • Jonas G. Croissant
    • , Kimberly S. Butler
    • , Jeffrey I. Zink
    •  & C. Jeffrey Brinker
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Nature Materials reports a nanoparticle dose threshold above which nanoparticle accumulation in the tumour substantially increases.

    • Christine Horejs
  • Review Article |

    Advances in molecular-structure design and modulation of the aggregation behaviour have enabled much progress in the observation of room-temperature phosphorescence from organic aggregates. This Review analyses key photophysical processes related to triplet excitons, illustrating the intrinsic structure–property relationships and identifying strategies to design efficient and persistent room-temperature-phosphorescent systems.

    • Weijun Zhao
    • , Zikai He
    •  & Ben Zhong Tang
  • Review Article |

    Introducing multiplicity and variation into the components of metal–organic frameworks has emerged as new fascinating directions in reticular chemistry. In this Review, the variances in the framework backbone, functionality and metal, and their leading to sequences of chemical information, are highlighted. Anisotropy in these structures is imposed by the variance and realized along a specific direction.

    • Wentao Xu
    • , Binbin Tu
    • , Qi Liu
    • , Yufei Shu
    • , Cong-Cong Liang
    • , Christian S. Diercks
    • , Omar M. Yaghi
    • , Yue-Biao Zhang
    • , Hexiang Deng
    •  & Qiaowei Li
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Science reports a modelling approach to estimate the effectiveness of different intervention scenarios aimed at reducing plastic pollution.

    • Christine Horejs
  • Comment |

    3D printing enables on-demand solutions for a wide spectrum of needs ranging from personal protection equipment to medical devices and isolation wards. This versatile technology is suited to address supply–demand imbalances caused by socio-economic trends and disruptions in supply chains.

    • Yu Ying Clarrisa Choong
    • , Hong Wei Tan
    • , Deven C. Patel
    • , Wan Ting Natalie Choong
    • , Chun-Hsien Chen
    • , Hong Yee Low
    • , Ming Jen Tan
    • , Chandrakant D. Patel
    •  & Chee Kai Chua
  • Review Article |

    Natural photosynthetic systems harvest light to perform selective chemistry on atmospheric molecules such as CO2. This Review discusses the implementation of bioinspired concepts in engineered light harvesting and catalysis.

    • Andrew H. Proppe
    • , Yuguang C. Li
    • , Alán Aspuru-Guzik
    • , Curtis P. Berlinguette
    • , Christopher J. Chang
    • , Richard Cogdell
    • , Abigail G. Doyle
    • , Johannes Flick
    • , Nathaniel M. Gabor
    • , Rienk van Grondelle
    • , Sharon Hammes-Schiffer
    • , Shaffiq A. Jaffer
    • , Shana O. Kelley
    • , Mario Leclerc
    • , Karl Leo
    • , Thomas E. Mallouk
    • , Prineha Narang
    • , Gabriela S. Schlau-Cohen
    • , Gregory D. Scholes
    • , Aleksandra Vojvodic
    • , Vivian Wing-Wah Yam
    • , Jenny Y. Yang
    •  & Edward H. Sargent
  • Review Article |

    The surface features of metal halide perovskites have a crucial role in determining their properties. This Review introduces the recent advances in the understanding of perovskite surfaces and surveys the surface strategies towards improving the properties of perovskite materials and the performance of perovskite optoelectronic devices.

    • Jingjing Xue
    • , Rui Wang
    •  & Yang Yang
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Nature Communications reports a 2D halide perovskite scintillator for the detection of β-rays and nuclear leakage.

    • Claire Ashworth
  • Review Article |

    The development of efficient, high-energy and high-power electrochemical energy-storage devices requires a systems-level holistic approach, rather than focusing on the electrode or electrolyte separately. In this Review, we discuss the interfacial reactions and ion transport in ionic-liquid-based Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors, and summarize their impact on device performance.

    • Xuehang Wang
    • , Maryam Salari
    • , De-en Jiang
    • , Jennifer Chapman Varela
    • , Babak Anasori
    • , David J. Wesolowski
    • , Sheng Dai
    • , Mark W. Grinstaff
    •  & Yury Gogotsi
  • Review Article |

    When single layers of 2D materials are stacked on top of one another with a small twist, the resulting moiré pattern introduces new electronic properties. This Review surveys and compares the modelling techniques used in this emerging field of twistronics.

    • Stephen Carr
    • , Shiang Fang
    •  & Efthimios Kaxiras
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Angewandte Chemie International Edition reports water oxidation using a linear conjugated polymer photocatalyst.

    • Claire Ashworth
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Nature Materials reports the control of the mechanical properties of a 2D magnet by changing its magnetization state, and of its magnetization by mechanical deformation.

    • Giulia Pacchioni
  • Review Article |

    Collagen subtypes contribute to the function of many tissues, but most studies on collagen focus on one or two subtypes only. This Review surveys the roles of collagen subtypes and crosslinks, their structure–function relationships and the possibility of using the resulting insight to engineer better neotissues.

    • Benjamin J. Bielajew
    • , Jerry C. Hu
    •  & Kyriacos A. Athanasiou
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Nature Nanotechnology reports a retinal prosthesis made of semiconducting nanoparticles that can be injected into the eye to replace degenerated photoreceptors and restore vision.

    • Christine Horejs
  • Review Article |

    Gradient nanostructured metals and alloys are an emerging class of materials that exhibit a combination of excellent mechanical properties that are not possessed by their homogeneous counterparts. This Review assesses the fabrication, characterization and deformation behaviour of these materials, as well as the challenges and future directions of the field.

    • Xiaoyan Li
    • , Lei Lu
    • , Jianguo Li
    • , Xuan Zhang
    •  & Huajian Gao
  • Books & Arts |

    Radioactive, a new biopic of Marie Curie, weaves together her personal story, her discoveries and the repercussions of her research into radioactivity.

    • Giulia Pacchioni
  • Review Article |

    Nonreciprocal acoustic and elastic wave propagation may enable the creation of devices such as acoustic one-way mirrors, isolators and topological insulators. This Review presents advances in the creation of materials that break reciprocity and realize robust, unidirectional acoustic and elastic wave steering.

    • Hussein Nassar
    • , Behrooz Yousefzadeh
    • , Romain Fleury
    • , Massimo Ruzzene
    • , Andrea Alù
    • , Chiara Daraio
    • , Andrew N. Norris
    • , Guoliang Huang
    •  & Michael R. Haberman
  • Review Article |

    In situ tissue regeneration harnesses the body’s regenerative potential for tissue repair using engineered biomaterials. In this Review, we outline various biomaterials approaches to control the body’s regenerative capacity for tissue-specific regeneration by modulating the extracellular microenvironment or driving cellular reprogramming.

    • Akhilesh K. Gaharwar
    • , Irtisha Singh
    •  & Ali Khademhosseini
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Nature reports the 3D printing of a metallic alloy that exploits the thermic cycling during the printing process to enable local control of the microstructure of the printed objects.

    • Giulia Pacchioni
  • Review Article |

    Weyl fermions in solids exhibit unique features such as spin–momentum locking and a diverging Berry curvature corresponding to a magnetic monopole in momentum space. This Review surveys the transport phenomena, magnetic excitations and nonlinear optical effects observed in these systems.

    • Naoto Nagaosa
    • , Takahiro Morimoto
    •  & Yoshinori Tokura
  • Comment |

    The rapidly expanding biomaterials data are challenging to organize. Text mining systems are powerful tools that automatically extract and integrate information in large textual collections. As text mining leaps forward by leveraging deep-learning approaches, it is time to address the most pressing biomaterials information and data processing needs.

    • Osnat Hakimi
    • , Martin Krallinger
    •  & Maria-Pau Ginebra
  • Review Article |

    Flat metasurface optics provides an emerging platform for combining semiconductor foundry methods of manufacturing and assembling with nanophotonics to produce high-end and multifunctional optical elements. This Review highlights the design of metasurfaces, recent advances in the field and initial promising applications.

    • Wei Ting Chen
    • , Alexander Y. Zhu
    •  & Federico Capasso
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Physical Review Letters reports that twisted bilayers of WSe2 host interlayer excitons with a high degree of valley polarization and long lifetimes.

    • Giulia Pacchioni
  • Comment |

    Batteries, as complex materials systems, pose unique challenges for the application of machine learning. Although a shift to data-driven, machine learning-based battery research has started, new initiatives in academia and industry are needed to fully exploit its potential.

    • Muratahan Aykol
    • , Patrick Herring
    •  & Abraham Anapolsky
  • Review Article |

    Design of bone-tissue-engineering materials involves consideration of multiple, often conflicting, requirements. This Review discusses these considerations and highlights scalable technologies that can fabricate natural and synthetic biomaterials (polymers, bioceramics, metals and composites) into forms suitable for bone-tissue-engineering applications in human therapies and disease models.

    • Gerry L. Koons
    • , Mani Diba
    •  & Antonios G. Mikos
  • Review Article |

    Self-healable polymers are materials that recover after physical damage. In this Review, we discuss the physical and chemical approaches to make self-healing polymers, with a focus on similarities with biological systems.

    • Siyang Wang
    •  & Marek W. Urban
  • Comment |

    In condensed matter systems, the atoms, electrons or spins can sometimes arrange themselves in ways that result in unexpected properties but that cannot be detected by conventional experimental probes. Several historical and contemporary examples of such hidden orders are known and more are awaiting discovery, perhaps in the form of more complex composite, entangled or dynamical hidden orders.

    • Gabriel Aeppli
    • , Alexander V. Balatsky
    • , Henrik M. Rønnow
    •  & Nicola A. Spaldin
  • Review Article |

    Matrigel is widely used for cell culture. However, its ill-defined composition, batch-to-batch variability and animal-derived nature lead to experimental uncertainty and a lack of reproducibility. In this Review, we discuss the limitations of Matrigel and highlight synthetic alternatives for stem-cell culture, regenerative medicine and organoid assembly.

    • Elizabeth A. Aisenbrey
    •  & William L. Murphy
  • Review Article |

    Reducible oxides are tunable, multifunctional materials used in many applications, particularly in catalysis; their attractive properties arise from their interacting charge carriers, complex electronic structure and propensity to form mobile defects. This Review surveys theoretical methods to model and understand reducible oxides, using TiO2 as a prototypical example.

    • Roger Rousseau
    • , Vassiliki-Alexandra Glezakou
    •  & Annabella Selloni
  • Research Highlight |

    An article in Science Advances reports a wireless smart contact lens for diabetic diagnosis and the delivery of drugs to treat diabetic retinopathy.

    • Alison Stoddart