Latest Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Deep-ocean polymetallic nodules contain an enormous tonnage of critical metals, which are vital natural resources for green-energy technologies and vehicles. This Review highlights the formation processes of these nodules and outlines the advantages and disadvantages for this developing industry moving forward.

    • James R. Hein
    • , Andrea Koschinsky
    •  & Thomas Kuhn
  • Review Article |

    River damming can harness hydropower, control flooding and store water, but can also alter biogeochemistry in reservoirs and downstream environments. In this Review, the impacts of dams on nutrient cycling and greenhouse production are discussed, emphasizing the need to consider biogeochemical cycling at all stages of dam lifespan.

    • Taylor Maavara
    • , Qiuwen Chen
    • , Kimberly Van Meter
    • , Lee E. Brown
    • , Jianyun Zhang
    • , Jinren Ni
    •  & Christiane Zarfl
  • Review Article |

    Understanding the complex geologic history of West Antarctica provides insight into the formation of continental margins across Earth. In this Review, we detail the magmatism, continental growth and fragmentation of West Antarctica over the past 500 million years.

    • Tom A. Jordan
    • , Teal R. Riley
    •  & Christine S. Siddoway
  • Review Article |

    Carbon capture and storage has a fundamental role in limiting anthropogenic warming to 1.5–2 °C. This Review discusses the basis, potential and limitations of in situ mineral carbonation as a carbon capture and storage strategy.

    • Sandra Ó. Snæbjörnsdóttir
    • , Bergur Sigfússon
    • , Chiara Marieni
    • , David Goldberg
    • , Sigurður R. Gislason
    •  & Eric H. Oelkers
  • Perspective |

    Discussions surrounding stratospheric aerosol geoengineering have increased in climate-change discourse, but our understanding of its impacts is relatively limited. This Perspective discusses the uncertainty and risk associated with stratospheric aerosol geoengineering, offering suggestions on research topics that should be prioritized.

    • Ben Kravitz
    •  & Douglas G. MacMartin
  • Perspective |

    Earth System Science (ESS) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate and understand global change. This Perspective outlines the history of ESS and advocates for the full integration of human and biogeophysical dynamics necessary to build a truly unified ESS effort.

    • Will Steffen
    • , Katherine Richardson
    • , Johan Rockström
    • , Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
    • , Opha Pauline Dube
    • , Sébastien Dutreuil
    • , Timothy M. Lenton
    •  & Jane Lubchenco
  • Technical Review |

    Advances in numerical methods and high-performance computing have enabled imaging of Earth’s interior across scales using the physics of seismic-wave propagation. This Technical Review summarizes the use of full-waveform inversion in controlled-source and earthquake seismology.

    • Jeroen Tromp
  • Review Article |

    Rising sea levels threaten to displace millions of people through direct inundation and increased exposure to related hazards. This Review highlights populations at risk from sea-level-rise-related migration and discusses individual and institutional factors that influence relocation decisions.

    • Mathew E. Hauer
    • , Elizabeth Fussell
    • , Valerie Mueller
    • , Maxine Burkett
    • , Maia Call
    • , Kali Abel
    • , Robert McLeman
    •  & David Wrathall
  • Review Article |

    Vegetation on Earth is increasing, potentially leading to a larger terrestrial carbon sink. In this Review, we discuss the occurrence of this global greening phenomenon, its drivers and how it might impact carbon cycling and land-atmosphere heat and water fluxes.

    • Shilong Piao
    • , Xuhui Wang
    • , Taejin Park
    • , Chi Chen
    • , Xu Lian
    • , Yue He
    • , Jarle W. Bjerke
    • , Anping Chen
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Hans Tømmervik
    • , Ramakrishna R. Nemani
    •  & Ranga B. Myneni