Review Articles

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  • Major environmental disruptions throughout Earth’s history are often linked to extensive magmatic events, termed large igneous provinces. This Review explores the coupled evolution of mantle melting, magmatism and volatile release over the life cycle of large igneous provinces.

    • Benjamin A. Black
    • Leif Karlstrom
    • Tamsin A. Mather
    Review Article
  • Since 2000, oceanographic conditions in the Barents Sea and the Eurasian Basin have transitioned from those reflecting the Arctic to a state more closely resembling that of the Atlantic. This Review examines the physical and ecological manifestations, drivers and implications of this so-called Atlantification.

    • Randi B. Ingvaldsen
    • Karen M. Assmann
    • Andrey V. Dolgov
    Review Article
  • Global drylands are threatened by a combination of anthropogenic climate change and human activities, putting some locations at high risk of desertification. This Review details changes observed in the drylands of China, and the mitigating impact of large-scale restoration and conservation programmes designed to reverse them.

    • Changjia Li
    • Bojie Fu
    • Wenxin Zhou
    Review Article
  • Mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows have historically been lost or degraded, threatening their ability to store carbon and provide ecosystem services. This Review details the global potential of blue carbon ecosystem protection and restoration in climate change mitigation, through carbon sequestration and co-benefit production.

    • Peter I. Macreadie
    • Micheli D. P. Costa
    • Carlos M. Duarte
    Review Article
  • Much of the western United States relies on seasonal snowpacks for water supply. This Review examines the projected changes and impacts of a declining western United States snowpack, and discusses the adaptation opportunities available to mitigate against such snow losses.

    • Erica R. Siirila-Woodburn
    • Alan M. Rhoades
    • Laurna Kaatz
    Review Article
  • The links between modern collisional mountain belts and those preserved in the geological record are debated. This Review compares the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen with four ancient mountain belts and uses their similarities and differences to investigate the factors that control mountain building.

    • Owen M. Weller
    • Catherine M. Mottram
    • Alex Copley
    Review Article
  • Anthropogenic climate change and environmental deterioration are driving global degradation of coral reefs. This Review examines how the natural adaptive capacity of coral holobionts can be harnessed and expanded to counter the ongoing loss of coral reefs.

    • Christian R. Voolstra
    • David J. Suggett
    • Manuel Aranda
    Review Article
  • The Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna delta is home to more than 170 million people, but is vulnerable to sea level rise, subsidence and direct human disturbance. This Review examines geomorphic change in the delta and its broader impacts.

    • Amelie Paszkowski
    • Steven Goodbred Jr.
    • Jim W. Hall
    Review Article
  • The transition to renewable energy will require a notable quantity of technology metals and materials; however, production of technology materials causes substantial environmental damage. This Review discusses the raw material extraction approaches that optimize technical performance and reduce environmental impact.

    • Robert Pell
    • Laurens Tijsseling
    • Phoebe Whattoff
    Review Article
  • Tropical teleconnections can influence polar climates through the generation of stationary Rossby waves. This Review outlines the dynamics and impacts of long-term tropical–polar connections on the Antarctic climate, which include warming trends and ice mass loss in West Antarctica.

    • Xichen Li
    • Wenju Cai
    • Chentao Song
    Review Article
  • Although the presence of ‘light’ elements (such as S, Si, O, C and H) can explain the core’s density deficit, the exact composition of the Earth’s core remains unknown. This Review explores the likely range of outer and inner core compositions and their implications.

    • Kei Hirose
    • Bernard Wood
    • Lidunka Vočadlo
    Review Article
  • The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has global climatic implications, necessitating understanding of its observed and projected changes. This Review brings together knowledge of ENSO in a warming climate, revealing projected increases in ENSO magnitude, as well as ENSO-related rainfall and sea surface temperature variability.

    • Wenju Cai
    • Agus Santoso
    • Wenxiu Zhong
    Review Article
  • River floods have direct and indirect consequences for society, and can cause fatalities, displacement and economic loss. This Review examines the physical and socioeconomic causes and impacts of disastrous river flooding, and past and projected trends in their occurrence.

    • Bruno Merz
    • Günter Blöschl
    • Elena Macdonald
    Review Article
  • Supereruptions are the endmember of explosive volcanic activity, yet, their magmatic processes and eruption dynamics are debated. This Review synthesizes data from 13 Quaternary supereruptive events with geophysical monitoring of active caldera volcanoes to highlight the diversity in large, modern, silicic magmatic systems.

    • Colin J. N. Wilson
    • George F. Cooper
    • Jamie Farrell
    Review Article
  • The Indian Ocean has undergone substantial heat and freshwater changes. This Review uses various data sources to examine the causes of contemporary and longer-term hydrological changes, revealing that trends over the twentieth century are linked to anthropogenic forcing, but that those since 1980 are related to the Interdecadal Pacific oscillation.

    • Caroline C. Ummenhofer
    • Sujata A. Murty
    • Nerilie J. Abram
    Review Article
  • The residence time of atmospheric water vapour has important implications for understanding hydrological processes. This Review discusses the general characteristics and changes in water vapour residence time, indicating 3–6% K−1 projected increases with warming.

    • Luis Gimeno
    • Jorge Eiras-Barca
    • James W. Kirchner
    Review Article
  • The magmatic processes required to form economic-grade porphyry Cu deposits are still poorly understood. This Review discusses the magmatic, redox and hydrothermal processes required for porphyry ore formation, revealing that both crustal thickness and depth of ore body emplacement can influence metal endowment.

    • Jung-Woo Park
    • Ian H. Campbell
    • Cin-Ty Lee
    Review Article
  • Anticipating the timing, style and size of volcanic eruptions is essential for hazard mitigation. This Review discusses the accumulation and evolution of magma storage regions, the processes that trigger magma reservoir failure and the ascent of magma through the crust.

    • Luca Caricchi
    • Meredith Townsend
    • Atsuko Namiki
    Review Article
  • The quasi-biennial oscillation and Madden–Julian oscillation are strongly connected during boreal winter, typified by a more active and persistent Madden–Julian oscillation during easterly quasi-biennial oscillation phases. This Review outlines the characteristics and potential mechanisms of this coupling, as well as the implications for seasonal-to-seasonal prediction.

    • Zane Martin
    • Seok-Woo Son
    • Chidong Zhang
    Review Article
  • With the landing of the Perseverance rover and the search for biosignatures on Mars, it is important to understand how these signs of life can be preserved and interpreted. This Review describes these signatures on Earth and how terrestrial analogues can inform the search for signs of life on early Mars.

    • Tanja Bosak
    • Kelsey R. Moore
    • John P. Grotzinger
    Review Article