Browse Articles

  • Perspective |

    Beach nourishment is a well-established engineering practice to slow erosion and maintain or expand sandy beaches, but sea level rise, diminishing sand resources and recreational, groundwater and ecological concerns require new assessments and designs of this coastal management technique. This Perspective describes the multidisciplinary aims and impacts of sandy beach nourishment.

    • Matthieu A. de Schipper
    • , Bonnie C. Ludka
    • , Britt Raubenheimer
    • , Arjen P. Luijendijk
    •  & Thomas. A. Schlacher
  • Review Article |

    The processes leading to large earthquakes remain enigmatic. Using detailed seismic and geodetic data, this Review examines how tectonic deformation and evolving fault behaviour initiate large earthquakes, and proposes an integrated model accounting for the diversity of observations.

    • Aitaro Kato
    •  & Yehuda Ben-Zion
  • Review Article |

    Although it was assumed for decades that the Earth’s mantle could not be magnetic, recent evidence suggests that parts of the upper mantle have magnetic remanence. This Review critically revisits mantle magnetism, discusses recent magnetic data and identifies unresolved questions about the sources of this magnetism.

    • Eric C. Ferré
    • , Ilya Kupenko
    • , Fátima Martín-Hernández
    • , Dhananjay Ravat
    •  & Carmen Sanchez-Valle
  • Review Article |

    Large changes in Greenland and North Atlantic temperature — termed Dansgaard–Oeschger cycles — have been linked to variations in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. However, the mechanisms are debated. This Review proposes an oscillatory framework to explain Dansgaard–Oeschger cyclicity, involving atmosphere–ocean–ice interactions.

    • Laurie C. Menviel
    • , Luke C. Skinner
    • , Lev Tarasov
    •  & Polychronis C. Tzedakis
  • Review Article |

    The 2011 nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, released large amounts of radionuclides, including 10 PBq of relatively long-lived radiocaesium, into the atmosphere. This Review details the distribution, migration and impact of fallout radionuclides in the terrestrial environment in the subsequent years.

    • Yuichi Onda
    • , Keisuke Taniguchi
    • , Kazuya Yoshimura
    • , Hiroaki Kato
    • , Junko Takahashi
    • , Yoshifumi Wakiyama
    • , Frederic Coppin
    •  & Hugh Smith
  • Review Article |

    Wind energy production has increased in recent years to mitigate climate change. However, climate change may itself modify wind energy resources. This Review discusses the climatic mechanisms influencing current and future wind energy production, finding spatial variability in projected responses and a dominance of internal variability.

    • Sara C. Pryor
    • , Rebecca J. Barthelmie
    • , Melissa S. Bukovsky
    • , L. Ruby Leung
    •  & Koichi Sakaguchi
  • Review Article |

    Internal wave-driven mixing influences the physico-chemical properties of the ocean. This Review outlines the generation, propagation and dissipation of internal waves arising from tides, winds and geostrophic currents, and explores their climatic impacts.

    • Caitlin B. Whalen
    • , Casimir de Lavergne
    • , Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
    • , Jody M. Klymak
    • , Jennifer A. MacKinnon
    •  & Katy L. Sheen
  • Review Article |

    The morphology of erosional landscapes is often considered to be set by climate and/or tectonics; however, similar topographic features can arise through internal processes and feedbacks. This Review considers how the internal and external processes drive landscapes evolution, and how such processes can be differentiated in topographic and stratigraphic records.

    • Joel S. Scheingross
    • , Ajay B. Limaye
    • , Scott W. McCoy
    •  & Alexander C. Whittaker
  • Review Article |

    Subduction erosion transports crustal material from the upper plate at subduction zones into the mantle and, thus, likely contributes to the composition of arc magmas. This Review discusses the evidence for subduction erosion globally and outlines how a contribution of tectonically eroded crust can be identified in arc magmas.

    • Susanne M. Straub
    • , Arturo Gómez-Tuena
    •  & Paola Vannucchi
  • Review Article |

    Concrete is one of the most widely used man-made materials and is critical for the ongoing urbanization of the global population. However, owing to its widespread use, concrete can have a negative impact on the environment. This Review provides medium-term and long-term solutions to address the environmental concerns surrounding concrete production.

    • G. Habert
    • , S. A. Miller
    • , V. M. John
    • , J. L. Provis
    • , A. Favier
    • , A. Horvath
    •  & K. L. Scrivener
  • Review Article |

    Deforestation and reforestation cause dramatic changes to tropical ecosystems, including underlying soil properties and their corresponding ecosystem services. In this Review, the impacts of this land-use change on soils and their functions are discussed.

    • Edzo Veldkamp
    • , Marcus Schmidt
    • , Jennifer S. Powers
    •  & Marife D. Corre
  • Review Article |

    Burning embers figures are used to represent climate-change risk and their transitions. This Review outlines the history and evolution of the burning embers concept, focusing on methodological shifts that increase transparency and allow for a more systematic elicitation process in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports.

    • Zinta Zommers
    • , Philippe Marbaix
    • , Andreas Fischlin
    • , Zelina Z. Ibrahim
    • , Sean Grant
    • , Alexandre K. Magnan
    • , Hans-Otto Pörtner
    • , Mark Howden
    • , Katherine Calvin
    • , Koko Warner
    • , Wim Thiery
    • , Zita Sebesvari
    • , Edouard L. Davin
    • , Jason P. Evans
    • , Cynthia Rosenzweig
    • , Brian C. O’Neill
    • , Anand Patwardhan
    • , Rachel Warren
    • , Maarten K. van Aalst
    •  & Margot Hulbert
  • Perspective |

    Soil health is essential to crop production but is also key to many ecosystem services. In this Perspective, the definition, impact and quantification of soil health are examined, and the needs in soil-health research are outlined.

    • Johannes Lehmann
    • , Deborah A. Bossio
    • , Ingrid Kögel-Knabner
    •  & Matthias C. Rillig
  • Review Article |

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone describes a band of heavy precipitation extending south-eastwards from the Solomon Islands to French Polynesia. This Review discusses the mechanisms explaining the diagonal orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone, its variability and projected changes under anthropogenic warming.

    • Josephine R. Brown
    • , Matthieu Lengaigne
    • , Benjamin R. Lintner
    • , Matthew J. Widlansky
    • , Karin van der Wiel
    • , Cyril Dutheil
    • , Braddock K. Linsley
    • , Adrian J. Matthews
    •  & James Renwick
  • Review Article |

    Vegetation fires are integral to some ecosystems but can be economically and environmentally destructive. This Review discusses contemporary and future fire regimes, adaptation to fire in the Anthropocene and the need for increased transdisciplinary research to achieve better fire management.

    • David M. J. S. Bowman
    • , Crystal A. Kolden
    • , John T. Abatzoglou
    • , Fay H. Johnston
    • , Guido R. van der Werf
    •  & Mike Flannigan
  • Technical Review |

    Seismology provides information on the structure and composition of the Earth’s deep mantle. Without accurate constraints on the elastic properties of deep-mantle minerals, however, the seismic dataset cannot be fully interpreted. This Technical Review outlines the current techniques that are used to investigate the elasticity of typical mantle minerals.

    • Hauke Marquardt
    •  & Andrew R. Thomson
  • Review Article |

    Stressors arising from anthropogenic climate change threaten tropical fisheries and, in turn, those extratropical nations reliant on them. This Review discusses the impact of climate change on tropical fish stocks and catch potential, the corresponding telecoupling and subsequent adaptation measures.

    • Vicky W. Y. Lam
    • , Edward H. Allison
    • , Johann D. Bell
    • , Jessica Blythe
    • , William W. L. Cheung
    • , Thomas L. Frölicher
    • , Maria A. Gasalla
    •  & U. Rashid Sumaila
  • Perspective |

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial global impact. This Perspective provides insight into the environmental effects of the pandemic, documenting how it offers an opportunity to better understand the Earth System.

    • Noah S. Diffenbaugh
    • , Christopher B. Field
    • , Eric A. Appel
    • , Ines L. Azevedo
    • , Dennis D. Baldocchi
    • , Marshall Burke
    • , Jennifer A. Burney
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Arlene M. Fiore
    • , Sarah M. Fletcher
    • , Thomas W. Hertel
    • , Daniel E. Horton
    • , Solomon M. Hsiang
    • , Robert B. Jackson
    • , Xiaomeng Jin
    • , Margaret Levi
    • , David B. Lobell
    • , Galen A. McKinley
    • , Frances C. Moore
    • , Anastasia Montgomery
    • , Kari C. Nadeau
    • , Diane E. Pataki
    • , James T. Randerson
    • , Markus Reichstein
    • , Jordan L. Schnell
    • , Sonia I. Seneviratne
    • , Deepti Singh
    • , Allison L. Steiner
    •  & Gabrielle Wong-Parodi
  • Perspective |

    Prolonged extreme oceanic warm water events, known as marine heatwaves, can have devastating impacts on marine ecosystems. This Perspective explores the predictability of marine heatwaves, taking into account the physical drivers, monitoring and prediction approaches, and stakeholder considerations.

    • Neil J. Holbrook
    • , Alex Sen Gupta
    • , Eric C. J. Oliver
    • , Alistair J. Hobday
    • , Jessica A. Benthuysen
    • , Hillary A. Scannell
    • , Dan A. Smale
    •  & Thomas Wernberg
  • Review Article |

    Some landslides creep at low velocities of a few millimetres to metres per year, forced by external factors such as rainfall, snowmelt, earthquakes or anthropogenic forcings. This Review discusses the recent advances in understanding slow-moving landslides and examines circumstances where slow-moving landslides can accelerate and fail catastrophically.

    • Pascal Lacroix
    • , Alexander L. Handwerger
    •  & Grégory Bièvre
  • Our Earth |

    Through the Desert Garden program, scientists and refugees have turned two problems — the inability to grow fresh fruits and vegetables in desert refugee camps and a warehouse of unrecyclable foam mattresses — into a humanitarian solution.

    • Moaed A. Al Meselmani
    • , Harry C. Wright
    • , Duncan D. Cameron
    •  & Anthony J. Ryan
  • Review Article |

    Climate change affects lakes worldwide and is predicted to continue to alter lake ice cover, surface temperature, evaporation rates, water levels and mixing regimes. This Review discusses recent and expected lake responses to climate change and looks towards future research opportunities in lake monitoring and modelling.

    • R. Iestyn Woolway
    • , Benjamin M. Kraemer
    • , John D. Lenters
    • , Christopher J. Merchant
    • , Catherine M. O’Reilly
    •  & Sapna Sharma
  • Review Article |

    Permafrost-affected soils are an unappreciated but potentially substantial source of nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. This Review outlines the global importance of nitrous oxide dynamics in permafrost-affected soils, examines what drives nitrous oxide fluxes and discusses the impact of climate change on these greenhouse gas emissions.

    • Carolina Voigt
    • , Maija E. Marushchak
    • , Benjamin W. Abbott
    • , Christina Biasi
    • , Bo Elberling
    • , Steven D. Siciliano
    • , Oliver Sonnentag
    • , Katherine J. Stewart
    • , Yuanhe Yang
    •  & Pertti J. Martikainen
  • Review Article |

    Pyroclastic density currents are complex multiphase flows originating from volcanic eruptions and account for almost a third of volcanic fatalities globally. This Review discusses recent advances in understanding of the complex internal processes within pyroclastic density currents and how these influence the flow dynamics and hazard footprints.

    • Gert Lube
    • , Eric C. P. Breard
    • , Tomaso Esposti-Ongaro
    • , Josef Dufek
    •  & Brittany Brand
  • Editorial |

    The efforts of early career researchers are many and varied, but how they are acknowledged requires improvement. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment is now part of a peer-review trial to include, train and acknowledge early career referees.