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  • An article in Climatic Change outlines the economic benefits of proactive adaptation for US-based rail, road and coastal infrastructure.

    • Graham Simpkins
    Research Highlight
  • Earth sciences are fundamental to tackling climate change, natural hazards and the energy transition, yet universities worldwide are putting geoscience departments on the chopping block — right when they are needed most.

    Editorial
  • Grasslands provide key ecosystem services, but their protection is often ignored in sustainable policy. This Perspective describes grassland degradation and sets out the steps needed to protect these systems and promote their restoration.

    • Richard D. Bardgett
    • James M. Bullock
    • Hongxiao Shi
    Perspective
  • Tropical teleconnections can influence polar climates through the generation of stationary Rossby waves. This Review outlines the dynamics and impacts of long-term tropical–polar connections on the Antarctic climate, which include warming trends and ice mass loss in West Antarctica.

    • Xichen Li
    • Wenju Cai
    • Chentao Song
    Review Article
  • An article in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems established a soil gas monitoring approach to identify hydrogen-fertile regions in the Pyrenean foothills.

    • Erin Scott
    Research Highlight
  • Although the presence of ‘light’ elements (such as S, Si, O, C and H) can explain the core’s density deficit, the exact composition of the Earth’s core remains unknown. This Review explores the likely range of outer and inner core compositions and their implications.

    • Kei Hirose
    • Bernard Wood
    • Lidunka Vočadlo
    Review Article
  • The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has global climatic implications, necessitating understanding of its observed and projected changes. This Review brings together knowledge of ENSO in a warming climate, revealing projected increases in ENSO magnitude, as well as ENSO-related rainfall and sea surface temperature variability.

    • Wenju Cai
    • Agus Santoso
    • Wenxiu Zhong
    Review Article
  • River floods have direct and indirect consequences for society, and can cause fatalities, displacement and economic loss. This Review examines the physical and socioeconomic causes and impacts of disastrous river flooding, and past and projected trends in their occurrence.

    • Bruno Merz
    • Günter Blöschl
    • Elena Macdonald
    Review Article
  • An article in Climate Dynamics documents tropical cyclone characteristics in the northern Indian Ocean, revealing marked changes in the Arabian Sea.

    • Graham Simpkins
    Research Highlight
  • Supereruptions are the endmember of explosive volcanic activity, yet, their magmatic processes and eruption dynamics are debated. This Review synthesizes data from 13 Quaternary supereruptive events with geophysical monitoring of active caldera volcanoes to highlight the diversity in large, modern, silicic magmatic systems.

    • Colin J. N. Wilson
    • George F. Cooper
    • Jamie Farrell
    Review Article
  • An article in JGR Biogeosciences measures ebullitive methane fluxes in an Amazon floodplain.

    • Laura Zinke
    Research Highlight
  • The Indian Ocean has undergone substantial heat and freshwater changes. This Review uses various data sources to examine the causes of contemporary and longer-term hydrological changes, revealing that trends over the twentieth century are linked to anthropogenic forcing, but that those since 1980 are related to the Interdecadal Pacific oscillation.

    • Caroline C. Ummenhofer
    • Sujata A. Murty
    • Nerilie J. Abram
    Review Article
  • The residence time of atmospheric water vapour has important implications for understanding hydrological processes. This Review discusses the general characteristics and changes in water vapour residence time, indicating 3–6% K−1 projected increases with warming.

    • Luis Gimeno
    • Jorge Eiras-Barca
    • James W. Kirchner
    Review Article
  • An article in Nature Geoscience reveals that sedimentary carbon from the Indus Fan was subducted into the Makran Trench and efficiently returned to the near-surface within ~27 million years or less.

    • Erin Scott
    Research Highlight