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  • The future of the land carbon sink depends on the temperature response of ecosystem respiration. This Review explores observational and experimental evidence for a unimodal temperature response of respiration and the implications for carbon sequestration predictions.

    • Shuli Niu
    • Weinan Chen
    • Yiqi Luo
    Review Article
  • The switch to a low-carbon economy is heavily reliant on mining, geothermal energy and geological storage. Subsurface geoscientists are critically needed to responsibly source, manage and refine these operations while minimizing environmental and social impacts.

  • Using carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) for carbon removal is crucial to climate policy, but implementation at scale is at risk owing to political obstacles. Climate policies must avoid relying on empty promises of CCS for carbon removal without necessary financial resourcing and support emissions reductions separately from carbon removal.

    • Nils Markusson
  • Underground hydrogen storage (UHS) will be an essential part of the energy transition. Over 45 pilot projects are underway to reduce the technical and regulatory risks of UHS, but negative perceptions must be addressed to ensure that hydrogen’s role in achieving net zero targets can be realized.

    • Katriona Edlmann
  • To explore career opportunities outside of academia, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment interviewed Allen Pope about their career path from research scientist to programme director at the U.S. National Science Foundation.

    • Graham Simpkins
    • Allen Pope
  • Treated wastewater (TW) reuse for irrigation could alleviate water imbalances and boost food production in water-scarce regions, thus promoting global food and water security. This Review discusses the potential and challenges of widespread TW reuse for agriculture in a circular economy framework.

    • Anastasis Christou
    • Vasiliki G. Beretsou
    • Despo Fatta-Kassinos
    Review Article
  • Climate change and human activities are increasing the exposure of deltaic communities to natural hazards. This Review discusses lessons that the Asian mega-deltas can share to develop long-term resilience strategies.

    • Faith Ka Shun Chan
    • Amelie Paszkowski
    • Yong-Guan Zhu
    Review Article
  • A loss and damage (L&D) fund has been established to support particularly vulnerable developing countries. L&D funding needs, entitlements and necessary contributions can be quantified using climate economics coupled with historical responsibility principles; for the year 2025, total L&D funding needs are estimated to be US $395 [128–937] billion.

    • Massimo Tavoni
    • Pietro Andreoni
    • Leonie Wenz
  • Fire can increase the rates of geomorphic processes leading to rapid landscape change and sediment-related hazards. This Review outlines the factors and processes that influence the magnitude, temporal persistence and extent of fire-induced geomorphic changes.

    • Luke A. McGuire
    • Brian A. Ebel
    • Petter Nyman
    Review Article
  • To explore career opportunities outside of academia, Nature Reviews Earth & Environment interviewed Eleni Wood about their career path from PhD student to a researcher at BBC Studios.

    • Erin Scott
    • Eleni Wood
  • Increasing light emissions threaten human and ecological health. This Review outlines existing measurements and projections of light pollution trends and impacts, as well as developments in ground-based and remote sensing techniques that are needed to improve them.

    • Hector Linares Arroyo
    • Angela Abascal
    • Christopher C. M. Kyba
    Review Article
  • Warmer temperatures enhance formation of glacial lakes that can suddenly and catastrophically release as a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF), threatening downstream lives and infrastructure. This Review outlines observed and projected changes in glacial lakes and GLOFs, reporting that both will increase with ongoing deglaciation.

    • Guoqing Zhang
    • Jonathan L. Carrivick
    • Natalie Lützow
    Review Article
  • Wildfires are important ecosystem regulators and can benefit many fire-prone ecosystems, but extreme fires can leave soils vulnerable to nutrient loss and contaminant transformations. This Review discusses fire-induced impacts on soil chemistry and post-fire soil, air and water recovery.

    • Alandra Marie Lopez
    • Claudia Christine E. Avila
    • Thomas Borch
    Review Article