Browse Articles

  • Review Article |

    Deforestation and reforestation cause dramatic changes to tropical ecosystems, including underlying soil properties and their corresponding ecosystem services. In this Review, the impacts of this land-use change on soils and their functions are discussed.

    • Edzo Veldkamp
    • , Marcus Schmidt
    • , Jennifer S. Powers
    •  & Marife D. Corre
  • Review Article |

    Burning embers figures are used to represent climate-change risk and their transitions. This Review outlines the history and evolution of the burning embers concept, focusing on methodological shifts that increase transparency and allow for a more systematic elicitation process in Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports.

    • Zinta Zommers
    • , Philippe Marbaix
    • , Andreas Fischlin
    • , Zelina Z. Ibrahim
    • , Sean Grant
    • , Alexandre K. Magnan
    • , Hans-Otto Pörtner
    • , Mark Howden
    • , Katherine Calvin
    • , Koko Warner
    • , Wim Thiery
    • , Zita Sebesvari
    • , Edouard L. Davin
    • , Jason P. Evans
    • , Cynthia Rosenzweig
    • , Brian C. O’Neill
    • , Anand Patwardhan
    • , Rachel Warren
    • , Maarten K. van Aalst
    •  & Margot Hulbert
  • Perspective |

    Soil health is essential to crop production but is also key to many ecosystem services. In this Perspective, the definition, impact and quantification of soil health are examined, and the needs in soil-health research are outlined.

    • Johannes Lehmann
    • , Deborah A. Bossio
    • , Ingrid Kögel-Knabner
    •  & Matthias C. Rillig
  • Review Article |

    The South Pacific Convergence Zone describes a band of heavy precipitation extending south-eastwards from the Solomon Islands to French Polynesia. This Review discusses the mechanisms explaining the diagonal orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone, its variability and projected changes under anthropogenic warming.

    • Josephine R. Brown
    • , Matthieu Lengaigne
    • , Benjamin R. Lintner
    • , Matthew J. Widlansky
    • , Karin van der Wiel
    • , Cyril Dutheil
    • , Braddock K. Linsley
    • , Adrian J. Matthews
    •  & James Renwick
  • Review Article |

    Vegetation fires are integral to some ecosystems but can be economically and environmentally destructive. This Review discusses contemporary and future fire regimes, adaptation to fire in the Anthropocene and the need for increased transdisciplinary research to achieve better fire management.

    • David M. J. S. Bowman
    • , Crystal A. Kolden
    • , John T. Abatzoglou
    • , Fay H. Johnston
    • , Guido R. van der Werf
    •  & Mike Flannigan
  • Technical Review |

    Seismology provides information on the structure and composition of the Earth’s deep mantle. Without accurate constraints on the elastic properties of deep-mantle minerals, however, the seismic dataset cannot be fully interpreted. This Technical Review outlines the current techniques that are used to investigate the elasticity of typical mantle minerals.

    • Hauke Marquardt
    •  & Andrew R. Thomson
  • Review Article |

    Stressors arising from anthropogenic climate change threaten tropical fisheries and, in turn, those extratropical nations reliant on them. This Review discusses the impact of climate change on tropical fish stocks and catch potential, the corresponding telecoupling and subsequent adaptation measures.

    • Vicky W. Y. Lam
    • , Edward H. Allison
    • , Johann D. Bell
    • , Jessica Blythe
    • , William W. L. Cheung
    • , Thomas L. Frölicher
    • , Maria A. Gasalla
    •  & U. Rashid Sumaila
  • Perspective |

    The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial global impact. This Perspective provides insight into the environmental effects of the pandemic, documenting how it offers an opportunity to better understand the Earth System.

    • Noah S. Diffenbaugh
    • , Christopher B. Field
    • , Eric A. Appel
    • , Ines L. Azevedo
    • , Dennis D. Baldocchi
    • , Marshall Burke
    • , Jennifer A. Burney
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Steven J. Davis
    • , Arlene M. Fiore
    • , Sarah M. Fletcher
    • , Thomas W. Hertel
    • , Daniel E. Horton
    • , Solomon M. Hsiang
    • , Robert B. Jackson
    • , Xiaomeng Jin
    • , Margaret Levi
    • , David B. Lobell
    • , Galen A. McKinley
    • , Frances C. Moore
    • , Anastasia Montgomery
    • , Kari C. Nadeau
    • , Diane E. Pataki
    • , James T. Randerson
    • , Markus Reichstein
    • , Jordan L. Schnell
    • , Sonia I. Seneviratne
    • , Deepti Singh
    • , Allison L. Steiner
    •  & Gabrielle Wong-Parodi
  • Perspective |

    Prolonged extreme oceanic warm water events, known as marine heatwaves, can have devastating impacts on marine ecosystems. This Perspective explores the predictability of marine heatwaves, taking into account the physical drivers, monitoring and prediction approaches, and stakeholder considerations.

    • Neil J. Holbrook
    • , Alex Sen Gupta
    • , Eric C. J. Oliver
    • , Alistair J. Hobday
    • , Jessica A. Benthuysen
    • , Hillary A. Scannell
    • , Dan A. Smale
    •  & Thomas Wernberg
  • Review Article |

    Some landslides creep at low velocities of a few millimetres to metres per year, forced by external factors such as rainfall, snowmelt, earthquakes or anthropogenic forcings. This Review discusses the recent advances in understanding slow-moving landslides and examines circumstances where slow-moving landslides can accelerate and fail catastrophically.

    • Pascal Lacroix
    • , Alexander L. Handwerger
    •  & Grégory Bièvre
  • Our Earth |

    Through the Desert Garden program, scientists and refugees have turned two problems — the inability to grow fresh fruits and vegetables in desert refugee camps and a warehouse of unrecyclable foam mattresses — into a humanitarian solution.

    • Moaed A. Al Meselmani
    • , Harry C. Wright
    • , Duncan D. Cameron
    •  & Anthony J. Ryan
  • Review Article |

    Climate change affects lakes worldwide and is predicted to continue to alter lake ice cover, surface temperature, evaporation rates, water levels and mixing regimes. This Review discusses recent and expected lake responses to climate change and looks towards future research opportunities in lake monitoring and modelling.

    • R. Iestyn Woolway
    • , Benjamin M. Kraemer
    • , John D. Lenters
    • , Christopher J. Merchant
    • , Catherine M. O’Reilly
    •  & Sapna Sharma
  • Review Article |

    Permafrost-affected soils are an unappreciated but potentially substantial source of nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. This Review outlines the global importance of nitrous oxide dynamics in permafrost-affected soils, examines what drives nitrous oxide fluxes and discusses the impact of climate change on these greenhouse gas emissions.

    • Carolina Voigt
    • , Maija E. Marushchak
    • , Benjamin W. Abbott
    • , Christina Biasi
    • , Bo Elberling
    • , Steven D. Siciliano
    • , Oliver Sonnentag
    • , Katherine J. Stewart
    • , Yuanhe Yang
    •  & Pertti J. Martikainen
  • Review Article |

    Pyroclastic density currents are complex multiphase flows originating from volcanic eruptions and account for almost a third of volcanic fatalities globally. This Review discusses recent advances in understanding of the complex internal processes within pyroclastic density currents and how these influence the flow dynamics and hazard footprints.

    • Gert Lube
    • , Eric C. P. Breard
    • , Tomaso Esposti-Ongaro
    • , Josef Dufek
    •  & Brittany Brand
  • Editorial |

    The efforts of early career researchers are many and varied, but how they are acknowledged requires improvement. Nature Reviews Earth & Environment is now part of a peer-review trial to include, train and acknowledge early career referees.

  • Review Article |

    Contamination of agricultural soils by heavy metals and metalloids has severe consequences on human and ecosystem health. This Review discusses the sources of heavy metal(loid) contamination, the mechanisms by which these contaminants interact with biological and geochemical soil elements, and plant-based and microorganism-based remediation strategies.

    • Deyi Hou
    • , David O’Connor
    • , Avanthi D. Igalavithana
    • , Daniel S. Alessi
    • , Jie Luo
    • , Daniel C. W. Tsang
    • , Donald L. Sparks
    • , Yusuke Yamauchi
    • , Jörg Rinklebe
    •  & Yong Sik Ok
  • Our Earth |

    The Carbon Neutrality Challenge is an initiative to mitigate climate change, in which individuals estimate their CO2 footprint and then plant enough trees to offset it. Thousands of trees have been planted by volunteers in Hawaii who took the Carbon Neutrality Challenge.

    • Asryelle Mora Rollo
    • , Audrey Rollo
    •  & Camilo Mora
  • Review Article |

    Research on compound events has increased vastly in the last several years, yet, a typology was absent. This Review proposes a comprehensive classification scheme, incorporating compound events that are preconditioned, multivariate, temporally compounding and spatially compounding events.

    • Jakob Zscheischler
    • , Olivia Martius
    • , Seth Westra
    • , Emanuele Bevacqua
    • , Colin Raymond
    • , Radley M. Horton
    • , Bart van den Hurk
    • , Amir AghaKouchak
    • , Aglaé Jézéquel
    • , Miguel D. Mahecha
    • , Douglas Maraun
    • , Alexandre M. Ramos
    • , Nina N. Ridder
    • , Wim Thiery
    •  & Edoardo Vignotto
  • Review Article |

    By increasing erosion, mountain building can steer the evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and global climate. This Review expands from the canonical focus on silicate weathering to consider the net carbon budget of erosion, including both CO2 sinks (silicate weathering, organic-carbon burial) and CO2 sources (oxidative weathering).

    • Robert G. Hilton
    •  & A. Joshua West
  • Review Article |

    Mesoscale convective systems are an important source of precipitation in many tropical and mid-latitude regions, but can also produce hazardous weather, such as extreme rain, derechos and tornadoes. This Review discusses the formation of mesoscale convective systems, their hazardous weather, predictive capabilities and projected changes with anthropogenic warming.

    • Russ S. Schumacher
    •  & Kristen L. Rasmussen
  • Perspective |

    Traditional methods for ocean observation are often inadequate for detecting large-scale biogeochemical processes. This Perspective discusses the advantages of implementing autonomous observation platforms in complementing traditional observation methods and generating global biogeochemical data sets.

    • Fei Chai
    • , Kenneth S. Johnson
    • , Hervé Claustre
    • , Xiaogang Xing
    • , Yuntao Wang
    • , Emmanuel Boss
    • , Stephen Riser
    • , Katja Fennel
    • , Oscar Schofield
    •  & Adrienne Sutton
  • Review Article |

    Hydraulic fracturing can trigger seismic events though a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, and could result in injuries, fatalities and damage to critical infrastructure. This Review considers six fundamental issues to address how induced seismicity can be predicted or mitigated.

    • Gail M. Atkinson
    • , David W. Eaton
    •  & Nadine Igonin
  • Review Article |

    New, non-compliant emissions of ozone-depleting substances and very short-lived substances challenge the continued success of the Montreal Protocol, and, thereby, the timescale for the recovery of the ozone layer. This Review discusses recent trends in anthropogenic and natural ozone-depleting substance and very short-lived substance emissions, and examines their potential impact on atmospheric ozone concentrations.

    • Martyn P. Chipperfield
    • , Ryan Hossaini
    • , Stephen A. Montzka
    • , Stefan Reimann
    • , David Sherry
    •  & Susann Tegtmeier
  • Review Article |

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest accidental discharge of oil into the environment, and was intensely studied during and after the event. In this Review, the subsequent advances made in oil chemistry, dispersant application, and microbiology are discussed.

    • Elizabeth B. Kujawinski
    • , Christopher M. Reddy
    • , Ryan P. Rodgers
    • , J. Cameron Thrash
    • , David L. Valentine
    •  & Helen K. White