Review Articles

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  • Radical-pairing interactions were, until recently, considered something of a chemical curiosity. But these weak interactions, on par with hydrogen bonds, are easily switched on and off and, as a result, have become widely exploited in supramolecular chemistry, particularly in the assembly of out-of-equilibrium structures.

    • Kang Cai
    • Long Zhang
    • J. Fraser Stoddart
    Review Article
  • Charge-separated organic molecules find diverse applications as functional materials. This Review describes zwitterionicity as a general design principle for ‘smart’ coordination chemistry and the activation of strong bonds.

    • Dominik Munz
    • Karsten Meyer
    Review Article
  • Dual-locked optical probes change their optical signals when they respond to two biomarkers of interest. This facilitates real-time imaging of multiple interrelated biomarkers in living systems and, thus, provides opportunities to better understand pathological events and enhanced diagnostic specificity.

    • Luling Wu
    • Jiaguo Huang
    • Tony D. James
    Review Article
  • Machine learning is starting to reshape our approaches to excited-state simulations by accelerating and improving or even completely bypassing traditional theoretical methods. It holds big promises for taking the optoelectronic materials design to a new level.

    • Pavlo O. Dral
    • Mario Barbatti
    Review Article
  • The recent COVID-19 pandemic and continued use of chemical weapons worldwide demonstrate the risks posed by biological and chemical threats. This Review highlights the importance of functionalized fabrics and surfaces to combat these threats and the progress made in their preparation.

    • Christia R. Jabbour
    • Luke A. Parker
    • Bert M. Weckhuysen
    Review Article
  • Developments in synthetic chemistry are increasingly driven by attempts to improve both selectivity and sustainability. This Review highlights the versatility of bifunctional reagents in generating chemical complexity with enhanced atom-economy-leveraging radical reactions, C–H functionalizations, cross-couplings, organocatalysed processes and cyclizations.

    • Huan-Ming Huang
    • Peter Bellotti
    • Frank Glorius
    Review Article
  • Photocatalysis is widely used in numerous fields, including chemistry and biology. This Review highlights the impact of photosensitization and photoredox photocatalysis within therapeutic development, bioconjugation and for probing complex cellular environments.

    • Keun Ah Ryu
    • Christina M. Kaszuba
    • Olugbeminiyi O. Fadeyi
    Review Article
  • Following a progression from quantum mechanics to modern data-driven methods, this Review presents the methodological spectrum of modelling organic reactions.

    • Kjell Jorner
    • Anna Tomberg
    • Per-Ola Norrby
    Review Article
  • DNA nanostructures are increasingly used in biological applications, in which nuclease resistance is a key parameter. This Review discusses the different strategies used to modulate and evaluate the nuclease resistance of DNA nanostructures.

    • Arun Richard Chandrasekaran
    Review Article
  • Biological processes can be monitored in real time using induced volatolomics, whereby metabolism of an exogenous probe affords volatiles diagnostic of healthy functioning or pathogens.

    • Fabiola Djago
    • Justin Lange
    • Pauline Poinot
    Review Article
  • The diverse manifestations of mechanochemistry probably share a similar mechanism, whereby mechanical motion drives otherwise endergonic reactions. This Review discusses what reactions of stretched polymers and model macrocycles have taught us about this mechanism.

    • Robert T. O’Neill
    • Roman Boulatov
    Review Article
  • This Review discusses recent progress in the uses, challenges and future prospects for separations using metal–organic cages. Precise control over the size, shape and functionalization of these cages enables their application for separations required in petroleum, pharmaceuticals, mining and life sciences.

    • Dawei Zhang
    • Tanya K. Ronson
    • Jonathan R. Nitschke
    Review Article
  • Carbohydrate adjuvants potentiate immune responses through diverse mechanisms. This Review highlights carbohydrate-based adjuvants, providing insights into structure–activity relationships and applications in vaccine development, while discussing current knowledge of the mechanisms by which they potentiate and modulate the immune response.

    • Carlo Pifferi
    • Roberto Fuentes
    • Alberto Fernández-Tejada
    Review Article
  • Bispecific antibodies are an up-and-coming type of construct among biologics. They are currently being produced by genetic engineering and expression. This Review highlights recently developed chemical methods for their construction.

    • Peter Szijj
    • Vijay Chudasama
    Review Article
  • DNA is a promising scaffold for guiding biomineralization. This Review describes how DNA nanostructures template calcium-based and silica biominerals, with applications envisioned in biomedicine, electronics and engineering.

    • Dimitra Athanasiadou
    • Karina M. M. Carneiro
    Review Article
  • Chemical reactions can still occur at temperatures as low as 1 μK. Under such conditions, however, quantum effects are increasingly important, challenging the common understanding of chemical reactivity. The current developments of experimental and theoretical approaches are starting to provide us with a clearer picture of chemistry close to absolute zero.

    • Brianna R. Heazlewood
    • Timothy P. Softley
    Review Article
  • Several transition-metal and lanthanide complexes undergo circularly polarized luminescence. This Review describes design principles for the complexes and instruments used to measure them, including in the context of security inks.

    • Lewis E. MacKenzie
    • Robert Pal
    Review Article