Volume 1 Issue 2, February 2019

Volume 1 Issue 2

Maintaining mature melanocortin neurons

Hypothalamic melanocortin neurons control energy homeostasis by modulating appetite. Here the authors reveal a role of the transcription factor Tbx3 as a regulator of the peptidergic identity and function of immature and mature mouse melanocortin neurons.

See Quarta et al.

Image: Alexandre Fisette. Cover Design: Sam Whitham.

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    The circulatory system in long bones is incompletely understood. A new study published in Nature Metabolism unveils the presence of dense vascular networks in long bones that facilitate the egress of bone marrow cells and potentially the exchange of nutrients between the bone marrow and the systemic circulation.

    • Christopher Ritchlin
    •  & Iannis E. Adamopoulos
  • News & Views |

    Hypothalamic neuronal diversity is at the core of whole-body energy-homeostasis control, but the molecular mechanisms governing neuronal neuropeptide specification remain incompletely understood. A new study in Nature Metabolism adds a relevant piece to the puzzle of how key hypothalamic neuronal populations maintain their peptidergic identity throughout the lifespan.

    • Arnaud Obri
    •  & Marc Claret

Reviews

  • Review Article |

    Like stem cells, cancer cells can rapidly proliferate but, unlike stem cells, they are mostly locked into a malignant identity. Here, Finley and Intlekofer highlight commonalities in anabolic pathways that support proliferation in cancer and stem cells, and point out unique metabolic features that influence self-renewal and differentiation.

    • Andrew M. Intlekofer
    •  & Lydia W. S. Finley
  • Review Article |

    Adipose tissue responds to a variety of hormonal and environmental cues with changes in size, cellular composition and metabolic activity. Here Kajimura and Chouchani review our current understanding of adipocyte metabolism in physiology and metabolic disease, and they discuss strategies to reprogram adipocyte fate and metabolism.

    • Edward T. Chouchani
    •  & Shingo Kajimura

Research

  • Letter |

    Neurons and astrocytes cooperate metabolically but differ in key aspects of their metabolism, including the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, the authors show that mitochondrial ROS produced in astrocytes affect neuronal metabolism and mouse memory and behaviour.

    • Carlos Vicente-Gutierrez
    • , Nicoló Bonora
    • , Veronica Bobo-Jimenez
    • , Daniel Jimenez-Blasco
    • , Irene Lopez-Fabuel
    • , Emilio Fernandez
    • , Charlene Josephine
    • , Gilles Bonvento
    • , Jose A. Enriquez
    • , Angeles Almeida
    •  & Juan P. Bolaños
  • Letter |

    Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures that have been linked to neuronal plasticity in the cortex and hippocampus. Here, the authors report the existence of PNN-like structures in a key region regulating energy homoeostasis, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, and show that PNN formation in this area early in life is influenced by the hormone leptin.

    • Zaman Mirzadeh
    • , Kimberly M. Alonge
    • , Elaine Cabrales
    • , Vicente Herranz-Pérez
    • , Jarrad M. Scarlett
    • , Jenny M. Brown
    • , Rim Hassouna
    • , Miles E. Matsen
    • , Hong T. Nguyen
    • , Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo
    • , Lori M. Zeltser
    •  & Michael W. Schwartz
  • Article |

    Hypothalamic melanocortin neurons control energy homoeostasis by modulating appetite. Here, the authors reveal a role for the transcription factor Tbx3 as a regulator of the peptidergic identity and function of immature and mature mouse melanocortin neurons.

    • Carmelo Quarta
    • , Alexandre Fisette
    • , Yanjun Xu
    • , Gustav Colldén
    • , Beata Legutko
    • , Yu-Ting Tseng
    • , Alexander Reim
    • , Michael Wierer
    • , Maria Caterina De Rosa
    • , Valentina Klaus
    • , Rick Rausch
    • , Vidhu V. Thaker
    • , Elisabeth Graf
    • , Tim M. Strom
    • , Anne-Laure Poher
    • , Tim Gruber
    • , Ophélia Le Thuc
    • , Alberto Cebrian-Serrano
    • , Dhiraj Kabra
    • , Luigi Bellocchio
    • , Stephen C. Woods
    • , Gert O. Pflugfelder
    • , Rubén Nogueiras
    • , Lori Zeltser
    • , Ilona C. Grunwald Kadow
    • , Anne Moon
    • , Cristina García-Cáceres
    • , Matthias Mann
    • , Mathias Treier
    • , Claudia A. Doege
    •  & Matthias H. Tschöp
  • Article |

    Bone marrow-derived cells can rapidly enter the systemic circulation, but how this is achieved is unclear. Grüneboom et al. identify tiny capillaries, termed trans-cortical vessels (TCVs), that connect the bone marrow cavity to the systemic vasculature, and show that the majority of blood in long bones passes through TCVs.

    • Anika Grüneboom
    • , Ibrahim Hawwari
    • , Daniela Weidner
    • , Stephan Culemann
    • , Sylvia Müller
    • , Sophie Henneberg
    • , Alexandra Brenzel
    • , Simon Merz
    • , Lea Bornemann
    • , Kristina Zec
    • , Manuela Wuelling
    • , Lasse Kling
    • , Mike Hasenberg
    • , Sylvia Voortmann
    • , Stefanie Lang
    • , Wolfgang Baum
    • , Alexandra Ohs
    • , Oliver Kraff
    • , Harald H. Quick
    • , Marcus Jäger
    • , Stefan Landgraeber
    • , Marcel Dudda
    • , Renzo Danuser
    • , Jens V. Stein
    • , Manfred Rohde
    • , Kolja Gelse
    • , Annette I. Garbe
    • , Alexandra Adamczyk
    • , Astrid M. Westendorf
    • , Daniel Hoffmann
    • , Silke Christiansen
    • , Daniel Robert Engel
    • , Andrea Vortkamp
    • , Gerhard Krönke
    • , Martin Herrmann
    • , Thomas Kamradt
    • , Georg Schett
    • , Anja Hasenberg
    •  & Matthias Gunzer
  • Article |

    As opposed to circulating factors that promote energy expenditure, hormones that suppress energy expenditure have remained largely elusive. Here, Wang et al. show that the hepatokine Tsukushi is upregulated in obesity and inhibits sympathetic activity and thermogenesis in fat by promoting whitening.

    • Qiuyu Wang
    • , Vishal P. Sharma
    • , Hong Shen
    • , Yuanyuan Xiao
    • , Qi Zhu
    • , Xuelian Xiong
    • , Liang Guo
    • , Lin Jiang
    • , Kunimasa Ohta
    • , Siming Li
    • , Haifei Shi
    • , Liangyou Rui
    •  & Jiandie D. Lin
  • Article |

    ACC1 is a rate-limiting enzyme during fatty acid biosynthesis. Here the authors describe how loss of ACC1 enhances CD4+ memory T cell formation and improves outcome in a murine model of parasite infection, indicating that lipid biosynthesis directs cell-fate determination during the generation of memory T cells.

    • Yusuke Endo
    • , Atsushi Onodera
    • , Kazushige Obata-Ninomiya
    • , Ryo Koyama-Nasu
    • , Hikari K. Asou
    • , Toshihiro Ito
    • , Takeshi Yamamoto
    • , Toshio Kanno
    • , Takahiro Nakajima
    • , Kenji Ishiwata
    • , Hirotaka Kanuka
    • , Damon J. Tumes
    •  & Toshinori Nakayama
  • Article |

    Ageing is associated with deteriorating immune function and metabolic diseases. Here, the authors show that plasma levels of the stress-response protein MANF decline with age in various organisms and that MANF has beneficial effects on immune and metabolic function, particularly in the liver, in old mice.

    • Pedro Sousa-Victor
    • , Joana Neves
    • , Wendy Cedron-Craft
    • , P. Britten Ventura
    • , Chen-Yu Liao
    • , Rebeccah R. Riley
    • , Ilya Soifer
    • , Nicholas van Bruggen
    • , Ganesh A. Kolumam
    • , Saul A. Villeda
    • , Deepak A. Lamba
    •  & Heinrich Jasper
  • Article |

    Many beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by factors secreted from the exercising muscle, so-called myokines. Here, the authors identify what might be the first exercised-induced adipokine, TGF-β2, which is secreted from subcutaneous fat in response to exercise-induced increases in serum lactate levels and has beneficial metabolic effects in mice.

    • Hirokazu Takahashi
    • , Christiano R. R. Alves
    • , Kristin I. Stanford
    • , Roeland J. W. Middelbeek
    • , Pasquale Nigro
    • , Rebecca E. Ryan
    • , Ruidan Xue
    • , Masaji Sakaguchi
    • , Matthew D. Lynes
    • , Kawai So
    • , Joram D. Mul
    • , Min-Young Lee
    • , Estelle Balan
    • , Hui Pan
    • , Jonathan M. Dreyfuss
    • , Michael F. Hirshman
    • , Mohamad Azhar
    • , Jarna C. Hannukainen
    • , Pirjo Nuutila
    • , Kari K. Kalliokoski
    • , Søren Nielsen
    • , Bente K. Pedersen
    • , C. Ronald Kahn
    • , Yu-Hua Tseng
    •  & Laurie J. Goodyear