Perspectives

  • Perspective |

    This perspective discusses the theoretical and statistical foundations of the analyses of inter-individual differences in task-related functional MRI, offering recommendations for improving statistical validity and interpretability of inter-individual differences in functional MRI.

    • Maël Lebreton
    • , Sophie Bavard
    • , Jean Daunizeau
    •  & Stefano Palminteri
  • Perspective |

    Núñez et al. use bibliometric and socio-institutional indicators to show that over the years, cognitive science has failed to transition to a mature, coherent, interdisciplinary field.

    • Rafael Núñez
    • , Michael Allen
    • , Richard Gao
    • , Carson Miller Rigoli
    • , Josephine Relaford-Doyle
    •  & Arturs Semenuks
  • Perspective |

    How do the arguments and insights of neoclassical and behavioural economics relate to one another? Aumann offers a synthesis of the two approaches based on the concept of rule-rationality.

    • Robert J. Aumann
  • Perspective |

    Why do people engage in collective decisions? El Zein, Bahrami & Hertwig argue that—through sharing responsibility—joint decisions protect individuals from possible negative consequences of difficult decisions by reducing regret and stress and helping avoid punishment.

    • Marwa El Zein
    • , Bahador Bahrami
    •  & Ralph Hertwig
  • Perspective |

    How do people seek to reduce uncertainty in social interactions? FeldmanHall & Shenhav propose a three-part model: first through more automatic impression formation, then more effortful perspective-taking, and finally by seeking and learning about additional information that can update their predictions

    • Oriel FeldmanHall
    •  & Amitai Shenhav
  • Perspective |

    Neurofeedback training is considered a promising tool in psychiatric intervention. To enable neurofeedback to fulfil its promise, Lubianiker et al introduce a process-based neurofeedback framework to guide future research and interventions.

    • Nitzan Lubianiker
    • , Noam Goldway
    • , Tom Fruchtman-Steinbok
    • , Christian Paret
    • , Jacob N Keynan
    • , Neomi Singer
    • , Avihay Cohen
    • , Kathrin Cohen Kadosh
    • , David E J Linden
    •  & Talma Hendler
  • Perspective |

    Muthukrishna & Henrich argue that solving the replication crisis in psychology partly requires well-specified, overarching theoretical frameworks. They outline how dual inheritance theory provides one such example that could be adopted by the field.

    • Michael Muthukrishna
    •  & Joseph Henrich
  • Perspective |

    Russ et al. discuss the broad applications of data science to mental health research and consider future ways that big data can improve detection, diagnosis, treatment, healthcare provision and disease management.

    • Tom C. Russ
    • , Eva Woelbert
    • , Katrina A. S. Davis
    • , Jonathan D. Hafferty
    • , Zina Ibrahim
    • , Becky Inkster
    • , Ann John
    • , William Lee
    • , Margaret Maxwell
    • , Andrew M. McIntosh
    • , Rob Stewart
    • , Margaret Anderson
    • , Kate Aylett
    • , Suzy Bourke
    • , Anna Burhouse
    • , Felicity Callard
    • , Kathy Chapman
    • , Matt Cowley
    • , James Cusack
    • , Katrina A. S. Davis
    • , Jaime Delgadillo
    • , Sophie Dix
    • , Richard Dobson
    • , Gary Donohoe
    • , Nadine Dougall
    • , Johnny Downs
    • , Helen Fisher
    • , Amos Folarin
    • , Thomas Foley
    • , John Geddes
    • , Joardana Globerman
    • , Jonathan D. Hafferty
    • , Lamiece Hassan
    • , Joseph Hayes
    • , Helen Hodges
    • , Zina Ibrahim
    • , Becky Inkster
    • , Eddie Jacob
    • , Rowena Jacobs
    • , Ann John
    • , Cynthia Joyce
    • , Suky Kaur
    • , Maximilian Kerz
    • , James Kirkbride
    • , Gerard Leavey
    • , Glyn Lewis
    • , Keith Lloyd
    • , Wendy Matcham
    • , Margaret Maxwell
    • , Erin McCloskey
    • , Andrew M. McIntosh
    • , Andrew McQuillin
    • , Tamsin Newlove Delgado
    • , Catherine Newsome
    • , Kristin Nicodemus
    • , David Porteous
    • , Daniel Ray
    • , Tom C. Russ
    • , Simran Sanhu
    • , Daniel Smith
    • , Robert Stewart
    • , Laura Tutu
    • , Ayath Ullah
    • , Bill Vance
    • , Eva Woelbert
    • , Miranda Wolpert
    • , Cathy Wyse
    •  & Stanley Zammit
  • Perspective |

    How to establish causal links is a central question across scientific disciplines. Marinescu and colleagues describe methods from empirical economics and how they could be adapted across fields, for example, to psychology and neuroscience, to test causality.

    • Ioana E. Marinescu
    • , Patrick N. Lawlor
    •  & Konrad P. Kording
  • Perspective |

    Increasing gender diversity can bring about substantial benefits for research and society. Nielsen et al. propose a framework for increased diversity not only in the composition of teams, but also in research methods and in the questions targeted by research.

    • Mathias Wullum Nielsen
    • , Carter Walter Bloch
    •  & Londa Schiebinger
  • Perspective |

    Human infants need a social environment to survive as they rely on caregivers to maintain allostasis. This Perspective proposes that the need of others to regulate physiological changes determines brain development, not only in the social domain.

    • Shir Atzil
    • , Wei Gao
    • , Isaac Fradkin
    •  & Lisa Feldman Barrett
  • Perspective |

    The success of humans as the last surviving species of the hominin clade may be explained by our ecological plasticity. Roberts and Stewart review evidence for human dispersal 300,000–12,000 years before present and propose that humans thrived via a unique ‘generalist specialist’ ecological niche.

    • Patrick Roberts
    •  & Brian A. Stewart
  • Perspective |

    The social science of happiness needs to recognize the importance of social connection and prosocial action for human well-being and become more interdisciplinary with greater collaboration, especially among social scientists and policymakers.

    • John F. Helliwell
    •  & Lara B. Aknin
  • Perspective |

    Studying subtle signals of generosity is important to understand the long term maintenance of human cooperative networks. Certain types of low-cost food sharing among Martu women, for example, may signal commitment and cement cooperative ties.

    • Rebecca Bliege Bird
    • , Elspeth Ready
    •  & Eleanor A. Power
  • Perspective |

    Consistent failure over the past few decades to reduce the high prevalence of stress-related disorders has motivated a search for alternative research strategies. Resilience refers to the phenomenon of many people maintaining mental health despite exposure to psychological or physical adversity. Instead of aiming to understand the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, resilience research focuses on protective mechanisms that shield people against the development of such disorders and tries to exploit its insights to improve treatment and, in particular, disease prevention. To fully harness the potential of resilience research, a critical appraisal of the current state of the art — in terms of basic concepts and key methods — is needed. We highlight challenges to resilience research and make concrete conceptual and methodological proposals to improve resilience research. Most importantly, we propose to focus research on the dynamic processes of successful adaptation to stressors in prospective longitudinal studies.

    • Raffael Kalisch
    • , Dewleen G. Baker
    • , Ulrike Basten
    • , Marco P. Boks
    • , George A. Bonanno
    • , Eddie Brummelman
    • , Andrea Chmitorz
    • , Guillén Fernàndez
    • , Christian J. Fiebach
    • , Isaac Galatzer-Levy
    • , Elbert Geuze
    • , Sergiu Groppa
    • , Isabella Helmreich
    • , Talma Hendler
    • , Erno J. Hermans
    • , Tanja Jovanovic
    • , Thomas Kubiak
    • , Klaus Lieb
    • , Beat Lutz
    • , Marianne B. Müller
    • , Ryan J. Murray
    • , Caroline M. Nievergelt
    • , Andreas Reif
    • , Karin Roelofs
    • , Bart P. F. Rutten
    • , David Sander
    • , Anita Schick
    • , Oliver Tüscher
    • , Ilse Van Diest
    • , Anne-Laura van Harmelen
    • , Ilya M. Veer
    • , Eric Vermetten
    • , Christiaan H. Vinkers
    • , Tor D. Wager
    • , Henrik Walter
    • , Michèle Wessa
    • , Michael Wibral
    •  & Birgit Kleim
  • Perspective |

    Friederici et al. outline a view of the neural organization of language that is compatible with a description of language as a biologically determined computational mechanism that yields an infinite number of hierarchically structured expressions.

    • Angela D. Friederici
    • , Noam Chomsky
    • , Robert C. Berwick
    • , Andrea Moro
    •  & Johan J. Bolhuis
  • Perspective |

    Medaglia et al. explore how network control theory — a subdiscipline of engineering — could guide interventions that modulate mental states in order to treat cognitive deficits or enhance mental abilities.

    • John D. Medaglia
    • , Perry Zurn
    • , Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
    •  & Danielle S. Bassett
  • Perspective |

    Lack of diversity in study populations, research methodologies and the researchers themselves undermines the goal of identifying and understanding the full range of human behaviour. Medin et al. argue that this system of non-diversity represents a crisis for the science of human behaviour.

    • Douglas Medin
    • , Bethany Ojalehto
    • , Ananda Marin
    •  & Megan Bang
  • Perspective |

    Inequality and unfairness are not the same thing. Starmans, Sheskin and Bloom summarize evidence showing that people are bothered not by economic inequality, but rather by economic unfairness.

    • Christina Starmans
    • , Mark Sheskin
    •  & Paul Bloom
  • Perspective |

    Duncan Watts considers whether many branches of social science could benefit from setting research goals aimed at specific and manageable real-world problems. He gives examples and discusses how more solution-oriented social science might work.

    • Duncan J. Watts
  • Perspective
    | Open Access

    Leading voices in the reproducibility landscape call for the adoption of measures to optimize key elements of the scientific process.

    • Marcus R. Munafò
    • , Brian A. Nosek
    • , Dorothy V. M. Bishop
    • , Katherine S. Button
    • , Christopher D. Chambers
    • , Nathalie Percie du Sert
    • , Uri Simonsohn
    • , Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
    • , Jennifer J. Ware
    •  & John P. A. Ioannidis