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  • Mental effort is traditionally a subject of psychological research. Kool and Botvinick discuss how recent attempts to study mental effort using concepts from behavioural economics have allowed researchers to better understand how costs and benefits drive when people invest mental effort.

    • Wouter Kool
    • Matthew Botvinick
    Review Article
  • Cullati and colleagues propose a framework to understand vulnerability in later life as a product of biological, psychological, cognitive, emotional, economical and relational ‘reserves’ built up over a lifetime, which can be called on to buffer against or recover from adversity.

    • Stéphane Cullati
    • Matthias Kliegel
    • Eric Widmer
    Review Article
  • Fehr and Schurtenberger show that the prevailing evidence supports the view that social norms are causal drivers of human cooperation and explain major cooperation-related regularities. Norms also guide peer punishment and people have strong preferences for institutions that support norm formation.

    • Ernst Fehr
    • Ivo Schurtenberger
    Review Article
  • Hilbe et al. synthesize recent theoretical work on zero-determinant and ‘rival’ versus ‘partner’ strategies in social dilemmas. They describe the environments under which these contrasting selfish or cooperative strategies emerge in evolution.

    • Christian Hilbe
    • Krishnendu Chatterjee
    • Martin A. Nowak
    Review Article
  • Male antisocial behaviour peaks in adolescence and declines later in life. Moffitt reviews recent evidence in support of the hypothesis that the age–crime curve conceals two groups of individuals with different causes.

    • Terrie E. Moffitt
    Review Article
  • Diener et al. synthesize findings from psychology and economics on subjective well-being across cultures and identify outstanding questions, priorities for future research and pathways to policy implementation.

    • Ed Diener
    • Shigehiro Oishi
    • Louis Tay
    Review Article
  • Sagiv et al. review two decades of research into personal values. Although subjective in nature, self-reported values predict a large array of attitudes and preferences. As such, they provide invaluable insight into human behaviour.

    • Lilach Sagiv
    • Sonia Roccas
    • Shalom H. Schwartz
    Review Article
  • McAuliffe et al. synthesize recent behavioural and neuroscientific evidence on the development of fairness behaviours in children, which shows that the signatures of human fairness can be traced in childhood.

    • Katherine McAuliffe
    • Peter R. Blake
    • Felix Warneken
    Review Article