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  • Building soil health and manipulating the soil microbiome, alongside targeted plant breeding that prioritizes preferential root architectural development, hold the key to the future success of regenerative agriculture. Greater integration is needed between disciplines focused on the rhizosphere scale with plant, microbiome and soil scientists working at the wider farm scale.

    • Sacha J. Mooney
    • Gabriel Castrillo
    • Malcolm J. Bennett
  • Biological diversity and food availability are intrinsically linked, yet trade-offs between them often arise. Further research is needed on the specific issues faced in different contexts and what could help overcome them.

  • The ongoing humanitarian crisis in Gaza is unprecedented in terms of the share of the population experiencing acute food insecurity and famine and the speed of the onset of the crisis. Research can help understand and anticipate the long-term impacts of the conflict on people and livelihoods, design more effective humanitarian support systems and identify options for creating resilient post-conflict livelihoods.

    • Rob Vos
    • Ismahane Elouafi
    • Johan Swinnen
  • Current narrow views of what constitutes evidence have left blind spots in food system decision-making. Yet, alternative ways of facilitating the production and exchange of transdisciplinary knowledge enable key lessons for more equitable and informed policy processes.

    • Samara Brock
    • Lauren Baker
    • Paul Rogé
  • Well-designed policies can catalyse food systems transformation, whereas poorly designed ones may perpetuate and even aggravate the food crisis.

  • Hybrid intelligence — arising from the sensible, targeted fusion of human minds and cutting-edge computational systems — holds great potential for enhancing the sustainability of agriculture. Leveraging the combined strengths of both collective human and artificial intelligence helps identify and stress-test pathways towards the reconciliation of biodiversity and productivity.

    • T. Berger
    • H. Gimpel
    • W. Weisser
  • Data-driven personalized nutrition (PN) can address the complexities of food systems in megacities, aiming to enhance food resilience. By integrating individual preferences, health data and environmental factors, PN can optimize food supply chains, promote healthier dietary choices and reduce food waste. Collaborative efforts among stakeholders are essential to implement PN effectively.

    • Anna Ziolkovska
    • Christian Sina
  • The first instalment of the FAO food systems roadmap is a key step in identifying pathways to achieve zero hunger without breaching the 1.5 °C climate change threshold. But future instalments should be more methodologically transparent, emphasize the need to reduce animal-sourced food consumption and align with a holistic One Health approach.

    • Cleo Verkuijl
    • Jan Dutkiewicz
    • Matthew Hayek
  • The Periodic Table of Food Initiative addresses food biomolecular composition information gaps through a standardized, accessible and enabling platform based on analytical tools, data and capacity building. Data from 1,650 foods serve as starting point for demonstrating the capacity of this initiative to contribute to nutrition, health and food systems transformations.

    • Andy Jarvis
    • Jenny Gallo-Franco
    • John de la Parra
  • European farmers are unhappy with low food prices, high production costs and market competition. Underlying these shared grievances are stark profile differences and interests that go well beyond the agricultural sector.

  • A Declaration signed by more than 150 countries in Dubai represents a milestone for integrating food systems into climate policies. Whether it will lead to concrete change remains to be seen.