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  • Computer-aided food engineering (CAFE) drives high-level innovations in food safety and quality. The multiscale structure of foods requires novel modelling paradigms. This Review explores current CAFE modelling frameworks and computational approaches and the challenges to introducing computer-aided engineering in food-manufacturing processes.

    • Ashim Datta
    • Bart Nicolaï
    • Chris Koh
    Review Article
  • Hedonic responses to food odour may be rooted in evolution, associated learning or the physiochemical structure of odorants. Here, vanilla is used to study these mechanisms in an effort to understand why some flavours are universally liked and how that might be advanced in food science.

    • Charles Spence
    Review Article
  • When plants are under stress, the over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to phytotoxicity and growth inhibition. This Review examines the current approaches of applying ROS-scavenging and ROS-triggering nanomaterials to plants to enhance stress resistance and explores their delivery pathways.

    • Lijuan Zhao
    • Tonghao Bai
    • Jason C. White
    Review Article
  • Unfed bivalve mariculture could fill the gap in demand for nutritious and sustainable seafood. This Review explores the bivalve value chain, examining how improved production practices and food processing could address consumer requirements for increased food safety and greater availability of appealing bivalve food products.

    • David F. Willer
    • Richard J. Nicholls
    • David C. Aldridge
    Review Article
  • Vertical farming systems have the potential to form a part of resilient food systems through the production of reliable, high-quality crops in urban landscapes. This Review explores how multi-layer indoor crop cultivation systems currently operate and the conditions needed to upscale and support their integration into mainstream agriculture.

    • S. H. van Delden
    • M. SharathKumar
    • L. F. M. Marcelis
    Review Article
  • Several frameworks aimed at making the effects of food production and consumption on society explicit have emerged recently. This Review identifies the main ones currently in use and compares them in terms of scope, functional unit, impacts and monetization types—with an outlook to their harmonization.

    • Reinier de Adelhart Toorop
    • Jenn Yates
    • Adrian de Groot Ruiz
    Review Article
  • The continued proliferation of certification schemes aimed at mitigating social and environmental problems in the food sector calls for constant stocktaking of their effects. This Review examines some of the most prominent sustainability standards to discuss the issues of causality, exclusion, compliance and monitoring, excess supply and emerging country markets—ultimately identifying directions for future research.

    • Eva-Marie Meemken
    • Christopher B. Barrett
    • Jorge Sellare
    Review Article
  • Crop microbiomes provide plants with beneficial functions including increased nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance, but the current capability of utilizing indigenous crop microbiomes is limited due to low efficiency of separating the targeted functional microbes. A newly proposed framework using single-cell-sorting Raman spectroscopy combined with a synthetic community approach has the potential to design and optimize a ‘beneficial biome’.

    • Qing-Lin Chen
    • Hang-Wei Hu
    • Ji-Zheng He
    Review Article
  • Understanding of the effects of elevated CO2 on crops has improved sufficiently that modelling future climatic effects on agriculture should eliminate ‘no CO2’ simulations. Further advancement in the estimation of the effects can be realized by studying a wider variety of crop species under a wider range of growing conditions, improving the representation of responses to climate extremes in crop models and simulating additional crop physiological processes related to nutritional quality.

    • Andrea Toreti
    • Delphine Deryng
    • Cynthia Rosenzweig
    Review Article
  • Conceptual frameworks linking food security and agriculture are diverse in their perspectives, assumptions and applications. After reviewing 36 such frameworks, systems modelling conventions are applied to a broadly cited framework to demonstrate the utility of incorporating these tools into food security frameworks for the interdisciplinary food community.

    • Charles F. Nicholson
    • Birgit Kopainsky
    • Erica L. Phillips
    Review Article
  • Concerns are emerging around wheat-based foods made from refined white flour and human health. This Review summarizes the impact of the amount, composition and interactions of the major carbohydrate components within wheat food products on human health and strategies to manipulate these components.

    • Brittany Hazard
    • Kay Trafford
    • Peter Shewry
    Review Article
  • Producing meat without the drawbacks of conventional animal agriculture would greatly contribute to future food and nutrition security. This Review Article covers biological, technological, regulatory and consumer acceptance challenges in this developing field of biotechnology.

    • Mark J. Post
    • Shulamit Levenberg
    • Panagiota Moutsatsou
    Review Article
  • Consumer acceptance of novel and disruptive technologies is key to their implementation and to building capacity for transforming food systems. Using gene technology, nanotechnology, cultured meat and food irradiation as cases, this Review explores consumer acceptance through the frames of food neophobia, disgust sensitivity and cultural values.

    • Michael Siegrist
    • Christina Hartmann
    Review Article
  • Emerging fungal and oomycete pathogens pose a significant risk to global food security. This Review summarizes factors affecting pathogen introduction and spread and current disease control strategies, and highlights the direction that research must take to face the challenge of emerging crop pathogens.

    • Helen N. Fones
    • Daniel P. Bebber
    • Sarah J. Gurr
    Review Article
  • Crop yield is stagnating in many parts of the world, and climate change threatens the worldwide agricultural system. This Review presents a comprehensive overview of current development leveraging genomic analyses and revolutionary new plant breeding technologies to enhance food crop traits through agricultural biotechnology.

    • Michael A. Steinwand
    • Pamela C. Ronald
    Review Article
  • A comprehensive review of the constitutive nature, design approaches, structural properties and applications of food gels, pertinent to the food science, nutrition and health communities.

    • Yiping Cao
    • Raffaele Mezzenga
    Review Article
  • Trade agreements can constrain or enable governments’ ability to implement food system-level actions aimed at improving nutrition and mitigating climate change. The technical and political aspects of trade agreements that interact with food systems are reviewed here, and the coherence between trade policy goals and public interest goals, such as nutrition and climate change, is discussed.

    • Sharon Friel
    • Ashley Schram
    • Belinda Townsend
    Review Article
  • Diet and policy approaches to curb obesity and type 2 diabetes can be contentious and confusing. This Review synthesises state-of-the-art and emerging evidence on diet and health, reflects on policy and reconciles the evolution of the discipline of nutritional science with changes in dietary advice.

    • Dariush Mozaffarian
    Review Article